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USPTO Terms of Art — TON to TZ

Glossary of USPTO Terms of Art

| A | B | C-CL | CM-CZ | D-DIM | DIM-DZ | E | F | G | H | I | J-K | L | M-MET | MET-MZ | N | O | P-PHA | PHE-PON | POR-PZ | Q | R | S-SEPA | SEPO-SMT | SN-STEM | STEP-SZ | T-TOG | TON-TZ | U | V | W | X-Z |

TONER (CLASS 355)
A material, e.g., finely divided (usually thermoplastic) powder, or pigmented polymer particles, an ink, or magnetic particles, used in electrostatic processes to make visible a latent image and which is treated, e.g., fused, dried, etc., to render the image permanent. It may include or exclude a carrier element.

TONER (CLASS 399)
Charged material (e.g., finely divided powder; i.e., usually thermoplastic or pigmented polymer particles), ink, or magnetic particles used in electrostatic processes to make visible a latent image and which may be treated (e.g., fused, dried, etc.) to render the image permanent. Toner can be charged by triboelectric action, by the direct application of charge (e.g., corona), or by inducing the charge through the action of the electrostatic latent image. The material may include or exclude a carrier element and may also be called "marking particles" or "developer material."

TOOL (CLASS 072)
A tangible instrumentality having a surface portion which is designed and intended to engage or react against work with sufficient force to effect an operation of the class type.

(1) Note. A core, mandrel, anvil, or the like, which may be "passive" in the sense of supplying only reaction force is included in this definition. The tool may be either transitory or enduring; it may be destroyed in a single use.

TOOL (CLASS 083)
The instrumentality that contacts the work for effecting directly the operation of the class either by itself or by cooperation with another tool.

TOOL (CLASS 172)
That portion of the apparatus which actually works the earth.

TOOL (CLASS 173)
A work contacting element which functions to effect some physical alteration in the work, such as chipping or boring, but also includes other elements which are driven in the same manner as a tool such as a nail or post.

TOOL (CLASS 175)
Comprises the terminal or work applying element of the boring means including bits, nozzles, drive points, projectiles, explosives, etc., which disintegrates, dislocates, erodes or compresses the earth to form a bore. See the appropriate subclasses for the definition of particular tools, and particularly Subclass References to the Current Class, above, for the definition of "bit".

TOOL (CLASS 269)
An instrumentality for effecting treatment of the work.

TOOL (CLASS 401)
An instrumentality having a portion which is designed and intended to apply or spread coating material on a work surface by contact therewith. The tool may be spaced from the work surface only by the thickness of material deposited by the tool.

TOOL (CLASS 404)
Material modifying or treating instrumentality actually contacting material (e.g., a roller or screed component of a road making machine) or the most proximate instrumentality guiding or directing modifying or treating energy against material (e.g., a nozzle of a soil stabilization device or a heating means of a road repair machine.

TOOL (CLASS 407)
A distinct unitary piece of material or plurality of unitary pieces of material permanently affixed together having a sharp edge or point for penetrating work and thereby directly effecting the operation of this class either by itself or by cooperation with another tool. A tool may have a plurality of edges or points for penetrating the work either concurrently, sequentially, or selectively and is adapted to be separably attached either directly or via a tool holder* to a machine*.

TOOL (CLASS 408)
The instrumentality that contacts the work for effecting directly the operation of the class, either by itself or by cooperation with another tool.

TOOL CARRIER (CLASS 072)
A device for holding a tool* (a) against the force of gravity, and/or (b) in cooperative relationship with another tool(s) or the work, and wherein the tool moves with respect to the device. For example, a stationary axle on which a roller* rotates is a "Tool Carrier" because of the relative movement; however, a shaft to which a roller is keyed so that both rotate together is not a carrier, whereas the bearing in which the shaft rotates is a "Tool Carrier" in this instance.

TOOL COMPLEX (CLASS 072)
Three or more relatively movable tools* which are in simultaneous contact with the same work at some instant during a metal-deforming operation.

(1) Note. Typically, either all active tools are concurrently actuated, or a tool couple deforms work and remains in contact therewith while a third, fourth, etc., tool advances into deforming contact with the thus restrained work.

(2) Note. The deformation effected by a "Tool Complex" is generally greater in degree and/or more elaborate in detail than can be accomplished by repeated operations of a tool couple*, or the successive strokes of a plural tool set*.

(3) Note. A "Tool Complex" may accomplish two or more seemingly distinct operations (e.g., simultaneously flanging opposite edges of a sheet). In many such instances, some advantage is gained over the use of plural tool sets (e.g., balanced forces on work may permit the use of lighter clamping structure or the elimination of a work-holding device, and the simultaneous tool actions may enable closer control of dimensions).

TOOL COUPLE (CLASS 072)
Two tools which are so related in position and relative motion that when both are engaged with the same work they cooperate to effect an operation of the class type. See "Tool Complex".

TOOL COUPLE ELEMENT (CLASS 269)
The portion of a work holder whose disclosed function is to (a) coact with a relatively movable work treating tool to treat the work, or (b) act as a guide for a relatively movable work treating tool to directly or indirectly constrain the tool for movement in a particular path, or (c) limit the movement of a work treating tool relative to the work so that it may contact only a portion of the work and is prevented from contacting another portion of the work. To be recognized as such, the tool couple element, if it is part of the work contacting portion of the work holder, must be of different structure than the rest of the work contacting surface, or must be a particular, definable portion of the work contacting surface such as an edge thereof.

TOOL CYCLE (CLASS 083)
The elapsed time between, and all of the motion traced by the tool between, the time the tool leaves any particular datum point in its approach to (or recession from) the work until it again leaves that point in its next succeeding approach to (or recession from) the work, the location of such datum point for a series of recurring cycles being determined without giving significance to mere positioning movements of the tool with respect to the work (Note: positioning movements of the tool are considered to be part of the cycle of motions constituting the tool cycle, and the time they occupy is part of the span of the cycle. They are disregarded only for the purpose of establishing the datum point of one cycle with respect to that of a preceding or succeeding cycle).

TOOL FACE (CLASS 072)
The surface portion(s) of a tool body which actually engage work at some time during an operation of the class type.

(1) Note. "Tool Face" is distinguishable from supporting, interconnecting, spacing, or surrounding surface portions which do not engage work during normal or disclosed operation. Disclosure of the tool operation is thus necessary for identification of the "Tool Face" proper, as is consideration for placement in subclasses 380+ (offset tool faces) or subclasses 392+ (relatively receding tool faces). (See diagram under subclass 386 for example of a "Tool Face".)

TOOL HOLDER (CLASS 072)
A Device rigidly attached to a tool and effective to support and/or to transmit actuating force thereto. See "Tool Carrier".

TOOL HOLDER (CLASS 407)
A device consisting of a single element or a plurality of elements having means to removably carry a tool* and adapted to be separably attached to a machine* for supporting the tool against gravity and against the reaction of working force.

TOOL PAIR (CLASS 083)
A plurality of tools, each having a work contacting portion, said portions being initially separated from each other and cooperating to effect cutting of the work when they have relative movement toward each other.

TOOL SEAT (CLASS 407)
That part of the tool holder* that is in direct contact with the tool. The tool seat may be integral with the remainder of the support of may be separably carried thereby.

TOOL STROKE (CLASS 083)
The motion of the tool toward and into the work to effect a cut, and the motion of retraction of the tool from the product to its base position.

TOOL SUPPORT (CLASS 083)
An element connected to the tool for supporting it against gravity and that partakes of all of the movement of the tool and has no relative movement with respect to the tool except for purposes of adjustment.

TOOL-AXIS (CLASS 408)
The longitudinal center about which the cutting tool of this class rotates relative to the work and relative to the machine-frame structure during the cutting operation.

TOOL-CYCLE (CLASS 408)
The elapsed time between and all of the motions traced by the tool between the time the tool leaves any particular datum point in its approach to (or recession from) the work until it again leaves that point in its next succeeding approach to (or recession from) the work, the location of such datum point for a series of recurring cycles being determined without giving significance to mere positioning movements of the tool with respect to the work. (Note: Positioning movements of the tool are considered to be part of the cycle of motions constituting the tool-cycle, and the time they occupy is part of the span of the cycle. They are disregarded only for the purpose of establishing the datum point of one cycle with respect to that of a preceding or succeeding cycle).

TOOL-FIELD (CLASS 234)
An area embracing all the points which can be operated upon in one cycle of acutation of a given plurality of tools.

TOOL-INFEED (CLASS 408)
the motion of a tool relative to work and relative to the base of the cutting machine along the tool-axis toward the work during the cutting operation.

TOOL-SUPPORT (CLASS 408)
An element connected to the tool for supporting it against gravity and that partakes of all the movement of the tool and has no relative movement with respect to the tool except for purpose of adjustment.

TOOLS(*) (CLASS 024)
An instrument for affecting the operation of a Class 24 fastener usually operated by hand and totally separable from the fastener after affecting operation.

TOTAL INTERNAL REFLECTION (CLASS 385)
A principle based upon Snell's Law, which defines the relationship between incident and refracted light rays at a boundary between two media of different refractive indices: n1 sin Q1 = n2 sin Q2 where n1 = refractive index of first medium; n2 = refractive index of second medium; Q1 = angle of incident ray at boundary; Q2 = angle of refracted ray at boundary; For Q2 = 90 degrees, the critical angle of incidence is given by Qc = sin-1 (n2/n1). At angles of incidence greater than Qc, the light is reflected from the boundary.

TOTALLY REFLECTORIZED (CLASS 385)
The state of an optical element having all of its inward facing lateral surfaces made reflectors, as for example by the coating thereof with a reflective metal.

TOXIC WASTE (CLASS 435)
Materials that are direct physiological poisons to living organisms (e.g., pesticides, heavy metal ion solutions, and other materials that are poisonous to life.

TOXIC WASTE (CLASS 588)
Materials that are direct physiological poisons to living organisms (e.g., pesticides, heavy metal ion solutions, and other organic and inorganic materials) that are poisonous to life.

TPF (CLASS 438)
thermoplastic film

TRACELESS LINKER (CLASS 506)
Linker which does not leave any residue on the cleaved compound (i.e., which is replaced by a hydrogen atom).

TRACK OR STORAGE TRACK (CLASS 369)
A continuous path of an intelligence varied characteristic on the storage medium.

TRACKING (CLASS 369)
Following a storage track by a transducer assembly or a component thereof.

TRANSACTION (CLASS 902)
An act between a user* and a monetary fiduciary party (e.g., a financial institution) whereby monetary value is exchanged.

TRANSDUCER (CLASS 347)
The part of the head* which converts an input signal into the force for producing the mark*.

TRANSDUCER (CLASS 352)
A device which converts one form of energy to another. The term generally used in this class in the recording or reproducing of sound accompaniment and denotes such devices as a magnetic pick up or electro-mechanical phonograph pick up.

TRANSDUCER ASSEMBLY (CLASS 369)
The combination of an energy conversion device (transducer) and device coupling the energy conversion device to a storage medium so as to sense or to cause a variation of a characteristic therein.

TRANSFER (CLASS 709)
The movement of data from one location to another or the passing of program control from one portion of a program to another.

TRANSFER (CLASS 718)
The movement of data from one location to another or the passing of program control from one portion of a program to another.

TRANSFER (CLASS 719)
The movement of data from one location to another or the passing of program control from one portion of a program to another.

TRANSFER-MEDIUM (CLASS 400)
A piece of material, relatively thin as compared to its other dimensions, and flexible so as to conform to various configurations as required in a typewriter, which material is impregnated or coated on one or both of its opposite surfaces with a preparation of ink* or gelatin or other substance-containing carbon or other pigment that is capable of being transplaced from a surface of said material onto a surface of an adjacent record-medium*. Among the various forms of transfer-medium used in a typewriter are: (a) a "permanent" ink transfer-medium in the form of an elongated, narrow ribbon*, a wide ribbon, a disc, etc., all of which have the property that the character* symbol imprinted with the use of this transfer-medium is not easily erased, thereby producing an "original copy" text; (b) a "carbon-paper" transfer-medium, so called because one of its surfaces is coated with a substance containing carbon or other pigment having the property that the character imprinted with this transfer-medium is easily erased, thereby producing a "carbon copy" text; (c) a "hectos:graphic" ink transfer-medium, using an ink that is soluble in a particular solvent and is used to form a "master" plate that is subsequently used in a "spirit duplicating" copying process, and (d) a "correction" transfer-medium that is coated with a substance containing a pigment of the same color as that of the record-medium, and is used to correct an error in typing (as discussed in the definition of subclass 697 below).

TRANSFERRED ELECTRON DEVICE (CLASS 257)
See GUNN EFFECT. In such devices, advantage is taken of the negative differential mobility of electrons or holes in certain semiconducting compounds, particularly GaAs or InP.

TRANSFERRED ELECTRON DEVICE (CLASS 438)
See GUNN EFFECT. In such devices, advantage is taken of the negative differential mobility of electrons or holes in certain semiconducting compounds, particularly GaAs or InP.

TRANSFORMER (CLASS 323)
An electrical device which transfers electric energy from one circuit to another circuit at the same frequency solely by electromagnetic induction.

TRANSFORMER (CLASS 336)
An inductor having a plurality of coils or windings in mutually inductive relation.

TRANSFORMER: (CLASS 363)
An electrical device which transfers electrical energy from one circuit to another circuit at the same frequency solely by electrical induction.

TRANSISTOR (CLASS 257)
An active solid-state semiconductor device having three or more electrodes in which the current flowing between two specified electrodes is modulated by the voltage or current applied to one or more specified electrodes, and is capable of performing switching or amplification.

TRANSISTOR (CLASS 330)
An amplifying device comprising a semiconductor material to which contact is made by three or more electrodes.

TRANSISTOR (CLASS 331)
A semi-conductive active element having at least three electrodes so arranged that the application of electrical energy to one electrode controls the flow of current between two other electrodes.

TRANSISTOR (CLASS 438)
An active solid-state semiconductor device having three or more electrodes in which the current flowing between two specified electrodes is modulated by the voltage or current applied to one or more specified electrodes, and is capable of performing switching or amplification. May be of unipolar type (i.e., field effect transistor) or bipolar type.

TRANSISTORS: (CLASS 363)
An active semiconductor device usually made of silicon or germanium, having three or more electrodes. The three main electrodes used are the emitter, base, and collector. Conduction is by means of electrons (elementary particles having the smallest negative electrical charge that can exist) and holes (mobile electron vacancies equivalent to a positive charge).

TRANSIT TIME OSCILLATOR (CLASS 331)
An oscillator system wherein the time of flight or transit angle of charged particles between electrodes of a space discharge device is an appreciable part of the cycle of the generated oscillations, the energy derived from the moving particles being continuously supplied to the frequency determining network of the oscillator in proper phase to sustain oscillations. Transit time effects are utilized in magnetron, beam tube and retarding field type oscillators.

TRANSITION ELEMENTS (CLASS 257)
Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Y, Zr, Nb, Mo, Te, Ru, Rh, Pd, Ag, Cd, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Pm, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, Lu, Hf, Ta, W, Re, Os, Ir, Pt, Au, Hg, Ac, Th, Pa, U, Np, Pu, Am, Cm, Bk, Cf, E, Fm, Mv, No, Lw.

TRANSITION METAL (CLASS 520)
Denotes elements of atomic numbers 21-29, 39-47, 57-79, 89, and higher and does not include Zn, Cd, and Hg.

TRANSITION METAL* (CLASS 075)
A metal of the group Scandium (Sc), Titanium (Ti), Vanadium (V), Chromium (Cr), Manganese (Mn), Iron (Fe), Cobalt (Co), Nickel (Ni), Copper (Cu), Zinc (Zn), Yttrium (Y), Zirconium (Zr), Niobium (Nb) or Columbium (Cb), Molybdenum (Mo), Technetium (Tc), Ruthenium (Ru), Rhodium (Rh), Palladium (Pd), Silver (Ag), Cadmium (Cd), Lanthanum (La), Cerium (Ce), Praseodymium (Pr), Neodymium (Nd), Promethium (Pm), Samarium (Sm), Europium (Eu), Gadolinium (Gd), Terbium (Tb), Dysprosium (Dy), Holmium (Ho), Erbium (Er), Thulium (Tm), Ytterbium (Yb), Lutetium (Lu), Hafnium (Hf), Tantalum (Ta), Tungsten (W), Rhenium (Re), Osmium (Os), Iridium (Ir), Platinum (Pt), Gold (Au), Mercury (Hg), Actinium (Ac), Thorium (Th), Protactinium (Pd), Uranium (U), Neptunium (Np), Plutonium (Pu), Americium (Am), Curium (Cm), Berkelium (Bk), Californium (Cf), Einesteinium (Es), Fermium (Fm), Mendelevium (Md), Nobelium (No), Lawrencium (Lr), Unnilquadium (Unq), Unnilpentium (Unp), and Unnilhexium (Unh).

TRANSITION METAL* (CLASS 420)
An element of atomic number 21-30, 39-48 or 57-80.

TRANSLUCENT (CLASS 362)
Having the property of certain light pervious materials which results in the random internal scattering of light rays passing through the material.

TRANSMISSION (CLASS 725)
The electrical transfer of a signal, message, or other form of intelligence from one location to another.

TRANSMISSION LINE (CLASS 333)
As used in the subclass definitions is synonymous with wave transmission devices.

TRANSMITTER (CLASS 083)
A system for sending the signal or impulse which has been effected by a detector (see definition of "detector" above) to a means for establishing (in response to receipt of such signal or impulse) a driving connection between a source of power and a machine part or assembly; or sending such signal or impulse to a mart or assembly directly (as by a linkage).

TRANSMITTER (CLASS 725)
A device or circuit that generates high-frequency electric energy, controlled or modulated, which can be radiated by an antenna.

TRANSMUTATION (CLASS 376)
The bombardment of a nucleus by particle or photon so as to bring about a change in the nucleus resulting in a different isotope of the original nucleus or resulting in different element(s).

TRANSPARENT (CLASS 362)
Having the property of certain light pervious materials which permits light rays to pass through the material in straight lines. Transparent illuminating means may or may not be light modifiers.

TRAP CHAMBER (CLASS 425)
A compartment having means for providing a measured charge of material passing therethrough.

TRAPATT DEVICE (CLASS 257)
An acronym for trapped plasma avalanche triggered transit diodes, which are biased into avalanche condition. As the diode breaks down, a highly conducting electron-hole plasma quickly fills the entire n-type region, and the voltage across the diode drops to a low value. The plasma is then extracted from the diode by the low residual electric field, thus causing a large current flow even though the voltage is low. Once extraction of the plasma is completed, the current drops and the voltage rises.

TRAPATT DEVICE (CLASS 438)
An acronym for trapped plasma avalanche triggered transit diodes, which are biased into avalanche condition. As the diode breaks down, a highly conducting electron-hole plasma quickly fills the entire n-type region, and the voltage across the diode drops to a low value. The plasma is then extracted from the diode by the low residual electric field, thus causing a large current flow even though the voltage is low. Once extraction of the plasma is completed, the current drops and the voltage rises.

TRAPPAT (CLASS 438)
trapped plasma avalanche tunnel transit (diode)

TRAVEL GHOST (CLASS 352)
A fault of a motion picture projection caused by presentation of the individual picture in a motion picture sequence before the picture has come to rest. In projector systems this superfluous image is of a lesser light intensity.

TRAVELING (CLASS 425)
A movement to or from a station, (e.g., shaping, feeding or ejecting station, etc.), as opposed to movement at a station essential to an operation, (e.g., mere mold opening or closing, etc.).

TREAD (CLASS 305)
A unitary ground engaging block or plate made of flexible or rigid material or a combination of both and provided with securing means for connection to similar devices to form a flexible track.

TREATMENT (CLASS 095)
(a) With respect to the class subject matter, the term is restricted to reversible and nonchemical changes in physical characteristics of the fluid mixture or a separated constituent (e.g., heating, cooling, humidity control, agitating, pressure regulation, etc.). (b) With respect to the media used to perform the gas separation or to a material used to condition the fluid mixture for separation, the term may include chemical preparation, reconditioning, or reaction.

TREATMENT (CLASS 096)
(a) With respect to the class subject matter, the term is restricted to reversible and nonchemical changes in physical characteristics of the fluid mixture or a separated constituent (e.g., heating, cooling, humidity control, agitating, pressure regulation, etc.). (b) With respect to the media used to perform the gas separation or to a material used to condition the fluid mixture for separation, the term may include chemical preparation, reconditioning, or reaction.

TREATMENT (CLASS 141)
With respect to the treatment classes, treatment as here construed is concerned with reversible changes in the physical characteristics of contents material such as exemplified by agitating, heating, cooling, sorting and the like.

TREATMENT (CLASS 264)
A physical, chemical or mechanical step applied to molding material or an article or preform, (see conditioning).

TREATMENT (CLASS 425)
Altering or actively maintaining some property or a product or preform.

TREATMENT OR TREATING (CLASS 269)
An operation which modifies the shape or changes a characteristic of material, assembles pieces of material together, disassembles pieces of material, or applies fluid (nonpropellant) to material. See WORK HOLDER IN COMBINATION WITH TREATING MEANS and RELATIONSHIP TO PRESS MEANS, above.

TREE (CLASS 144)
A plant large enough to serve as a source of lumber*.

TRENCH ISOLATION (CLASS 257)
Electrical isolation of electronic components in a monolithic integrated circuit by the use of holes or other indentations in the surface of the device filled with dielectric material.

TRENCH ISOLATION (CLASS 438)
Electrical isolation of electronic components in a monolithic integrated circuit by the use of grooves or other indentations in the surface of the substrate, which may or may not be filled with electrically insulative (i.e., dielectric) material.

TRIAL FRAME (CLASS 351)
Adjustable lens holding frames for supporting lenses interchangeably during vision testing.

TRICKLING FILTER (CLASS 210)
A particulate bed of designed coarseness through which liquid is gravity fed at a rate to maintain relatively thin films on the particles and enhance air liquid contact to promote aerobic treatment of the liquid. An alternate method may be programmed flooding and draining of the bed. The treatment using such a bed is in subclasses 616+.

TRICYCLO RING SYSTEM (CLASS 514)
This term denotes a polycyclo ring system which contains exactly three rings.

TRIGLYCERIDIC FAT OR OIL (CLASS 426)
Esters of glycerol and a higher fatty acid (i.e., a monocarboxylic acid containing an unbroken chain of at least 7 carbon atoms bonded to a carbonyl group) wherein the three available hydroxyl functions of the glycerol are esterified by a same or different fatty monocarboxylic acid. Triglycerides are the chief constituents of the naturally occurring fats and oils.

TROLLEY (CLASS 212)
A movable carriage adapted to shift a load laterally by moving along a track or other guiding means and which supports or guides a member from which the load is suspended.

TSD (CLASS 438)
temperature sensing diode

TSOP (CLASS 438)
thin small outline package

TTL (CLASS 438)
transistor-transistor logic

TUBE (CLASS 072)
A pipe, hollow cylinder, or hollow rodlike member consisting of a wall shaped in the form of a simple closed curve and extending axially, providing a conduit throughout its length. The wall may vary along its axial length in transverse dimensions and/or shape.

TUBE (CLASS 331)
An active element of the space discharge device type. See: active element; space discharge device.

TUBING (CLASS 166)
A pipe for conducting fluids which extends from the top of the well to some point below and lies within the casing or is used without a casing as a temporary structure.

TUMBLER (CLASS 070)
A movable impediment to the movement of a bolt or other movable element which may respond to an operating element of corresponding complemental combination, or to a combination of movements to be so disposed as to provide an unimpeded path of movement of the bolt or other movable element.

TUNER (CLASS 334)
A device for tuning which consists of an inductor and capacitor or an inductor, capacitor and resistor so connected and resistor so connected as to form a resonance circuit, the mean frequency or channel to which the tuner is resonant being variable. The resistance may be in the form of the inherent resistance of the circuit or a lumped resistance element connected in the circuit. For a lumped resistor element connected in a tuned circuit, see Subclass References to the Current Class, above.

TUNING (CLASS 334)
The step or steps by which a tuner is adjusted in relation to a signal frequency or channel in order to obtain optimum or maximum resonance of the tuner circuit or system at some selected operating point or signal frequency.

TUNNEL DIODE (CLASS 257)
A semiconductor diode in which the electrons penetrate a quantum barrier that is impenetrable in terms of classical physics, but which is penetrable in terms of quantum physics due to the quantum mechanical uncertainty in position of current carriers.

TUNNEL DIODE (CLASS 438)
A semiconductor diode in which the electrons penetrate a quantum barrier that is impenetrable in terms of classical physics, but which is penetrable in terms of quantum physics due to the quantum mechanical uncertainty in position of current carriers.

TUNNEL EFFECT/TUNNELLING (CLASS 257)
See TUNNEL DIODE and RESONANT TUNNELING DEVICE.

TWIN (CLASS 117)
(Twin plane) A polycrystalline material in which the adjoining lattices have a mirror-image symmetrical relationship.

TWIN-TUB STRUCTURE (CLASS 257)
CMOS device structure in which both p-type and n-type deep wells are formed into a substrate for the n-channel and p-channel device (e.g., a transistor), respectively.

TWO-DIMENSIONAL ELECTRON GAS (CLASS 257)
A description of the motion of electrons which are confined in only one direction, such as electrons in the conducting channel of a MOSFET. In an electron gas, the electrons move around without apparent restriction. The behavior of electrons in conducting metals (e.g., copper) is an example of a three-dimensional electron gas. In a two dimensional electron gas, motion is restricted to a single plane (two dimensions).

TWO-DIMENSIONAL ELECTRON GAS (CLASS 438)
A description of the motion of electrons which are confined in only one direction, such as electrons in the conducting channel of a MOSFET. In an electron gas, the electrons move around without apparent restriction. The behavior of electrons in conducting metals (e.g., copper) is an example of a three-dimensional electron gas. In a two dimensional electron gas, motion is restricted to a single plane (two dimensions). See also MODFET.

TYPE-BAR (CLASS 400)
An elongated member having at one end a type-member* (i.e., a type-die* or a type-face*) element and at its other end a connection to one or more key* elements. In most manual type-writers, the number of type-bars corresponds to the number of keys provided, and the type-bars are pivoted to a type-bar-segment* so that the various type-faces are all impressed at approximately the same print-point*, but many variations of the construction are to be found. The type-bars may be pivoted to individual linkages, or may be slidable to print position. In some typewriters a single key may actuate a plurality of type-bars; in others, a plurality of keys may be depressed simultaneously to actuate a single type-bar; and in others (e.g., stenographic typewriters), there may be a plurality of character* symbols simultaneously imprinted.

TYPE-BAR-SEGMENT (CLASS 400)
A type-bar-segment is an arcuate member that serves to support all the type-bar* members for pivotal motion so that each of the type-member* elements carried by the type-bar members will be impressed onto the record-medium* at approximately the same print-point*. In some manual typewriters the type-bar-segment is moved to effect case-shift*. (This occurs because the type-member (i.e., type-face* or type-die*) that is at the print-point has been moved as a result of moving the type-bar-segment, so that an upper-case* or a lower-case* form of character* symbol is imprinted on the record-medium according to the choice of the typist.) The difference between a type-bar-segment and a type-face-carrier* (which also permits a type-bar to move relative thereto) is that a type-face-carrier moves both for selection of a character and for choice of upper-case of lower-case, whereas a type-bar-segment moves only for choice of upper-case or lower-case.

TYPE-DIE (CLASS 400)
An element that is impressed against a record-medium* to deform or pierce the surface of the record-medium into a representation of a character*. It is that portion of a type-member* that projects from the body of the type-member and contacts the surface of the record-medium to raise or lower the contacted surface relative to the uncontracted surface into a line representing a character, or to form one or more perforations in the contacted surface, which perforations taken together represent a character.

TYPE-FACE (CLASS 400)
An element that is impressed against a record-medium* to imprint a line representing a character*. It is that portion of a type-member* that projects from the body of the type-member, and contacts the surface of the record-medium to form the character by ink* applied to the type-face and transferred to the record-medium, or by ink applied via an ink ribbon* or similar transfer material that lies between the type-face and the surface of the record-medium.

TYPE-FACE-CARRIER (CLASS 400)
A type-face-carrier is a mechanism on which is mounted a plurality of type-member* elements (i.e., type-face* or type-die*) for movement of any one type-member relative to the remainder of the type-members mounted thereon. Usually a group of type-faces comprising a type-set-assemblage* is mounted on a type-face-carrier, face-carrier, and the type-face-carrier is capable of various kinds of movement. A typist will select one key* element from among the many key elements available, causing the type-face-carrier to move to a position at which the selected type-face will impact against a record-medium* to imprint the selected character* symbol (e.g., a particular letter, or a particular number, etc.) on the record-medium. A typist may choose to effect case-shift* or not effect case-shift, thereby to choose from the character symbols available on one key element the one symbol (e.g., the upper-case* or the lower-case* form of the same letter, etc.) thereby causing the type-face-carrier to move to a position at which the chosen type-face will imprint the chosen symbol. The mechanism also causes or enables relative movement between the type-face and the record-medium (e.g., movement of the type-face toward the print-point*) to imprint the selected or the chosen character or symbol on the record-medium. (See this Glossary, section III, under the definitions of the terms type-bar-segment* and type-head-carrier* for the differences between those mechanisms and a type-face-carrier).

TYPE-HEAD (CLASS 400)
A type-head is an element comprising one or more type-member* elements integral one with the other(s). In most manually powered type-writers a type-set-assemblage* is distributed among a plurality of type-heads, each of which as two type-face* elements. Some of these type-heads include a type-face for imprinting a particular letter in lower-case* and a type-face for imprinting the same letter in upper-case*, the choice being made by a case-shift* mechanism. Other type-heads in these manually powered type-writers include a type-face for imprinting a number and a type-face for imprinting a symbol (see the definition of character* in this Glossary for examples of a symbol), the choice of which is to be imprinted also being made by the case-shift mechanism. In some electrically powered typewriters a single type-head includes a complete type-set-assemblage, and said type-head is mounted on a type-head-carrier*. In such typewriters the single type-head is moved for selection of the type-face to be imprinted, or for the choice of the case to be used. In the definitions of the subclasses that follow, the term "type-head" has usually been reserved for the element that includes a type-set-assemblage on an electrically powered typewriter, and the element on the type end of a type-bar* has usually been referred to as a type-face.

TYPE-HEAD-CARRIER (CLASS 400)
A type-head-carrier is a mechanism on which is mounted at least one type-head* that includes a type-set-assemblage* (e.g., a group of type-face* elements) thereon for movement of the type-head relative to the type-head-carrier. Usually a type-head-carrier and the type-head mounted thereon are capable of various kinds of movement. A typist will select one key* element from among the many key elements available, causing the type-head to move (e.g., by oscillating and/or tilting) to a position at which the selected type-face will impact against a record-medium* to imprint the selected character* symbol (e.g., a particular letter, or a particular number, etc.) on the record-medium. A typist may choose to effect case-shift* or not effect case-shift, thereby to choose from the character symbols available on one key element the one symbol (e.g., the upper-case* or the lower-case* form of the same letter, etc.) that is to be imprinted, thereby causing the type-head to move to a position at which the chosen type-face will imprint the chosen symbol. The mechanism also causes or enables movement of the type-head (i.e., by movement of the type-head-carrier) between the type-face and the record-medium (e.g., movement of the type-face toward the print-point*) to imprint the selected or the chosen character or symbol on the record-medium. The difference between a type-head-carrier and a type-face-carrier* (which also carries a type-set-assemblage that moves both for selection of a character and for choice of upper-case or lower-case) is that a type-face-carrier supports individually movable type-face elements, whereas a type-head-carrier supports a type-head wherein all the type-face elements are integral therewith. In some typewriters that use a type-head-carrier a single type-head includes a complete type-set-assemblage, and this type-head may be removed from its carrier and be replaced with a different type-head having a different font* (e.g., the style, character size, alphabet, or symbols that the typewriter can produce). In some typewriters that use a type-head-carrier plural type-heads may be provided, each including a complete type-set-assemblage (e.g., in different fonts, etc.) or each including only part of a complete type-set-assemblage (e.g., one-half of an assemblage on one type-head and the other half of that assemblage on the other type-head).

TYPE-MEMBER (CLASS 400)
An element having on a surface thereof a type-die* or a type-face* which is impressed against a record-medium* to imprint a character* in or on the surface of the record-medium. In most typewriters there is only one type-member corresponding to each character* that is to be typed, and the user of the typewriter selects from the assortment of type-members provided in the apparatus one type-member at a time to be imprinted, and serially imprints the selected type-members to form the characters representing the text to be typed.

TYPE-SET-ASSEMBLAGE (CLASS 400)
A group of type-face* elements including a multiplicity of type-faces for imprinting the different character* symbols that a typewriter is capable of imprinting in the same font* of type. In many typewriters a type-set-assemblage is carried on a plurality of type-bar* members that include all the type-faces that the typewriter can imprint, either in upper-case* or in lower-case*, or in the various character symbols. In other typewriters a single type-head* includes all type-faces that the typewriter can imprint in the same font, and that type-head can be removed from the typewriter to be replaced by a type-head for another type-set-assemblage of a different font. In still other typewriters two or more type-heads are provided to comprise one type-set-assemblage, or to comprise two or more type-set-assemblages in different fonts.

TYPEWRITER-ACTUATED-CONTROL (CLASS 400)
Typewriter-actuated-control is intended to refer to a mechanism wherein a first part of a typewriter moves to accomplish its intended first-part function, and during said movement the first part engages a second part to move the second part, thereby accomplishing a second function as the second part is moved. A simple example of a typewriter-actuated-control exists in the instance of a typewriter wherein the ribbon* vibrator has means for opening the guide means of the vibrator for the purpose of facilitating insertion of a new ribbon. When the vibrator is next lifted or raised to enable the ribbon to cover the print-point* to imprint the next character*, the upward movement of the vibrator for typing causes engagement of elements that "automatically" causes closing of the vibrator guide to its normal position without special intervention of the typist to accomplish the guide-closing function.

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