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USPTO Terms of Art — R

Glossary of USPTO Terms of Art

| A | B | C-CL | CM-CZ | D-DIM | DIM-DZ | E | F | G | H | I | J-K | L | M-MET | MET-MZ | N | O | P-PHA | PHE-PON | POR-PZ | Q | R | S-SEPA | SEPO-SMT | SN-STEM | STEP-SZ | T-TOG | TON-TZ | U | V | W | X-Z |

RADAR (CLASS 342)
Acronym for radio detecting and ranging. A system that measures distance (and usually the direction) to an object by determining the amount of time required by electromagnetic energy to travel to and return from an object. Called primary radar when signals are returned by reflection. Called secondary radar when the incident signal triggers a responder beacon and causes it to transmit a second signal.

RADIANT ENERGY (CLASS 250)
Energy propagated in the form of electromagnetic waves, or traveling subatomic, atomic or molecular particles.

RADIANT ENERGY (CLASS 342)
The energy (partially kinetic, partially potential) associated with waves produced in free space by a source of energy, such as light wave, electromagnetic radiation (including radio waves), or neutron and similar radiation, subsonic, supersonic and sonic waves.

RADIANT ENERGY (CLASS 343)
The energy (partially kinetic, partially potential) associated with waves produced in free space by a space by a source of energy, as light waves, electromagnetic radiations (including radio wave), neutron and similar radiation, subsonic, supersonic and sonic waves.

RADIATE (CLASS 343)
The emanation of energy into free space.

RADIATION (CLASS 216)
The propagation of energy through space or through a material. It may be in the form of electromagnetic waves, corpuscular emissions or sound waves. The format is usually categorized according to frequency, e.g., Hertzian, infrared, visible light, ultraviolet, X-ray, gamma ray, etc. Corpuscular emissions are categorized as alpha, beta, or cosmic rays.

RADIATION (CLASS 342)
The emanation of energy into free space.

RADIATION (CLASS 430)
The propagation of energy through space or through a material. It may be in the form of electromagnetic waves, corpuscular emissions, or sound waves. The format is usually categorized according to frequency, e.g., Hertzian, infrared, (visible) light, ultraviolet, X-rays, gamma rays, etc., corpuscular emissions are categorized as alpha, beta, or cosmic.

RADIATION FIELD (CLASS 342)
An electromagnetic wave whose frequency spectrum extends over a range from somewhat above the frequency of audible sound waves to somewhat below the frequency of heat and light waves. Values of 10 kilocycles and 30,000 megacycles have been given as the lower the upper limits of the range for radio waves, although values exist beyond these limits. Radio waves as defined here exclude compressional waves, light waves, heat waves, infrared waves, ultraviolet waves, X-ray, cathode rays, gamma rays, and ion beams. The radio waves are produced by oscillations of electric change in an antenna.

RADIO OR HERTZ WAVE (CLASS 343)
An electromagnetic wave whose frequency spectrum extends over a range from somewhat above the frequency of audible sound waves to somewhat below the frequency of heat and light waves. Values of 10 kilocyles and 30,000 megacyles have been given as the lower an upper limits of the range for radio waves, although values exist beyond these limits. Radio waves as here defined exclude compressional waves, light waves, heat waves, infrared waves, ultraviolet waves, X-rays, cathode rays, gamma rays, and ion beams. The radio waves are produced by oscillations of electric change in an antenna.

RADIOACTIVE (CLASS 423)
Able to give off rays by spontaneous disintegration. The radioactive elements are usually those having an atomic number of 84 or greater and the phenomenon of radioactivity is not affected by chemical or physical influences.

RADIOACTIVE (CLASS 588)
Any element capable of giving off rays or subatomic particles by spontaneous disintegration. The radioactive elements are usually those having an atomic number of 84 or greater and the phenomenon of radioactivity is not affected by chemical or physical influences or matter adulterated by radioactivity.

RADIOACTIVE ACTIVE (CLASS 250)
Exhibiting spontaneous nuclear disintegration with emission of particulate or electromagnetic radiations.

RADIOACTIVE ELEMENT (CLASS 075)
An element of the group Technetium (Tc), Promethium (Pm), Polonium (Po), Astatine (At), Radon (Rn), Francium (Fr), Radium (Ra), Actinium (Ac), Thorium (Th), Protactinium (Pa), Uranium (U), Neptunium (Np), Plutonium (Pu), Americium (Am), Curium (Cm), Berkelium (Bk), Californium (Cf), Einsteinium (Es), Fermium (Fm), Mendelevium (Md), Nobelium (No), Lawrencium (Lr), Unnilquadium (Unq), Unnipentium (Unp), and Unnilhexium (Unh).

RADIOTELEPHONE SYSTEM (CLASS 455)
A system for establishing a voice communication link between a base and a mobile transceiver via a wireless carrier wave channel that is allocated for use during a communication link, and wherein the mobile transceiver has a specific assigned call address number.

RAM (CLASS 438)
random access memory

RAMMING (CLASS 164)
The operation of compacting sand into a sand mold and around a pattern.

RANGE (CLASS 269)
The extent or span of relative jaw movement, without reference to the work to be engaged, as predetermined by the structural relationship between elements of the means to actuate* said jaws. For example, shifting a split nut on a screw to initially position a jaw carried by said nut does not involve a range change since the nut can still travel the full extent of the screw; however, changing the degree of eccentricity of a jaw actuating element does involve a range change since the operation of said actuating element will now result in a variation of the effective throw of said element and its associated jaw.

RANGEFINDING (CLASS 396)
Rangefinding is the act of measuring the distance from a subject to the camera.

RARE EARTH ELEMENT (CLASS 501)
As used in this class (501), this term encompasses those elements having atomic numbers from 57 through 71 inclusive, and 89+. Thus, the following elements are herein treated as rare earth elements: lanthanum, cerium, praesodymium, neodymium, promethium, samarium, europium, gadolmium, terbium, dysprosium, holmium, erbium, thulium, ytterbium, lutecium, actinium, thorium, protoactinium, uranium, neptunium, and plutonium.

RARE EARTH METAL* (CLASS 075)
An element of the group Scandium (Sc), Yttrium (Y), Lanthanum (La), Cerium (Ce), Praseodymium (Pr), Neodymium (Nd), Promethium (Pm), Samarium (Sm), Europium (Eu), Gadolinium (Gd), Terbium (Tb), Dysprosium (Dy), Holmium (Ho), Erbium (Er), Thulium (Tm), Ytterbium (Yb), and Lutetium (Lu).

RARE EARTH* (CLASS 420)
An element of the group Scandium, Yttrium and the Lanthanides*.

RARE EARTHS (CLASS 257)
Sc, Y, Lanthanides.

RARE EARTHS (CLASS 423)
The oxides of the rare earth metals consisting of the elements having atomic numbers 21, 39, 57-71, inclusive.

RARE EARTHS (CLASS 588)
The compounds of the elements found on the periodic chart at atomic numbers 21, 39, or 57-71 inclusive.

RATCHET (CLASS 400)
A movable member having teeth thereon and at least one notch between the teeth, which notch is engaged by a protruding portion of a pawl* to cause or enable intermittent movement of the ratchet. The manner in which a pawl and ratchet mechanism is used in a typewriter is discussed under the definition of pawl in this Glossary, section III. Ratchet teeth may be part of a "ratchet wheel" or of a "ratchet rack", and the action of the pawl is similar in both instances. However, since a ratchet wheel is circular, its motion will be a one-way rotational intermittent motion; and since a ratchet rack is linear, its motion will be a one-way rectilinear intermittent motion.

RBS (CLASS 438)
Rutherford backscattering

RBT (CLASS 438)
resonant tunneling bipolar transistor

RC OR RL FREQUENCY DETERMINING NETWORK (CLASS 331)
A network of the nonresonant type comprising either resistive and capacitive or resistive and inductive components. The network, by way of example, may be employed: (1) as a frequency determining phase shift network in a sine wave oscillator of the phase shift type, (2) as a frequency determining bridge network in sine wave bridge oscillators, such as the Wien bridge type of the double-T type or (3) as a time constant network in a relaxation oscillator to determine the period of the generated relaxation oscillations.

RCT (CLASS 438)
reverse conducting thyristor

REACTANT (CLASS 429)
The material which includes an active material as one of its components.

REACTANT (CLASS 528)
A reactant for purposes of this Class is a material which occurs in a polymer as a repeating unit and is present in at least three units. As used herein, reactant is meant to exclude catalyst residues, chain transfer agents, etc.

REACTING SURFACE (CLASS 440)
The area or face of the propelling means which directly displaces the surrounding fluid.

REACTION BY-PRODUCTS (CLASS 376)
See By-Product Materials.

REACTIVE COUPLING (CLASS 330)
A coupling network including reactive means which may be inductive or capacitive.

REACTIVE DYE (CLASS 008)
A reactive dye reacts chemically with a substrate having reactive -H atoms thereon, e.g., ester or ether formation with cellulose.

REACTIVITY (CLASS 376)
A measure of the amount of the possible departure of a reactor from the critical condition where the reaction is just self- supporting. At any steady state of operation the reactivity is zero. Addition of positive reactivity causes divergence; addition of negative reactivity causes the reaction to die down.

REACTIVITY AFFECTING MATERIAL (CLASS 376)
As it relates to fission nuclear reactors, this is a material which affects the criticality of the reactor and can be (a) a neutron absorbing material (which for the purpose of this class is a material which can absorb neutrons without reproducing them, e.g., boron, or a fertile material such a uranium (U238 or thorium) thus providing a decrease in reactivity, (b) a fissionable material such as U235, Pu239, U233 (thus providing an increase in reactivity), and (c) a reflector (moderator) material such as graphite or water (thus providing an increase in reactivity).

REACTOR CORE (FISSION REACTOR) (CLASS 376)
The central or heart of a nuclear reactor containing as its main constituent the nuclear fuel (e.g., enriched uranium, Pu239, etc.), and the moderator, if any. Also known as the active volume of the reactor.

REACTOR GEOMETRY (FISSION REACTOR) (CLASS 376)
See subclasses 347+.

READ-IN (n.) (CLASS 234)
The transfer of data to a storage* device.

READ-OUT (n.) (CLASS 234)
The transfer of data from a storage device or other means, to tool selection mechanism.

READ-OUT REGISTER (CLASS 257)
Gated semiconductor devices which receive and accumulate charges and make them available to an output device.

REBAR (CLASS 052)
An art term for a concrete reinforcing rod. A rebar chair is a device for spacing a rebar from a concrete form.

REBEADING (CLASS 425)
Restoring a bead or rim on a product, usually a tire.

RECAPPING (CLASS 425)
Restoring the wear surface on a tire casing.

RECEIVER (CLASS 141)
A device which accepts the material from the dispenser and is capable of confining fluids within a predetermined or predescribed volumetric configuration, and does not therefore rely upon surface tension or molecular cohesive forces to preclude escape of material therefrom.

RECEIVER (CLASS 258)
As herein used, this term designates the device or element to which the load is delivered.

RECEIVER (CLASS 355)
The light sensitive element onto which the image from the carrier is recorded.

RECEIVER (CLASS 725)
The apparatus employed to accept data from a communications system.

RECEPTACLE (CLASS 053)
A stage of cover formation in which the cover material has been fashioned into such shape as to at least partially confine the contents, as for example, against lateral displacement. A sheet of bendable or foldable cover material which has received a single preliminary fold, such as a U-fold, as well as a completely formed carton, are both considered to be receptacles.

RECEPTACLE (CLASS 406)
A hopper or similar container for holding a quantity of load material or articles and having a discharge or intake opening therein.

RECEPTACLE (CLASS 413)
A tube closed at one end (e.g., drinking cup).

RECEPTOR ELEMENT (CLASS 430)
An element which receives a transferred image from another element.

RECESSED-ROLL (CLASS 226)
A roll* having a radially stepped periphery, the radially outward portion engaging material and the radially inward portion(s) not engaging the material.

RECIPROCATING OR OSCILLATING MOTOR (CLASS 318)
A motor which is structurally arranged or constructed so as to have a limited degree of movement, and which is provided with means for moving the movable (working element) of the motor to-and-fro repeatedly over substantially the same path or arc of movement (including rotations about an axis co-incident with the geometrical or center-or-gravity axis of the movable element of the motor). Compare this definition and the definition of "LINEAR MOVEMENT MOTORS".

RECIPROCATING RECTILINEARLY (CLASS 366)
Moving bodily back and forth in a straight line in the same path so that at any instant, all parts of the moving body move in the same direction at the same rate.

RECOMBINATION (CLASS 257)
The process by which excess holes and electrons in a semiconductor crystal recombine and and no longer function as charge carriers in the semiconductor. Basic recombination processes are band-to-band recombination which occurs when an electron in the conduction band recombines with a hole in the valence band, and trapping recombination which occurs when an electron or hole is captured by a deep energy level, such as produced by a deep level dopant, before recombining with an opposite conductivity type carrier.

RECOMBINATION (CLASS 438)
The process by which excess holes and electrons in a semiconductor crystal recombine and no longer function as charge carriers in the semiconductor. Basic recombination processes are band-to-band recombination which occurs when an electron in the conduction band recombines with a hole in the valence band, and trapping recombination which occurs when an electron or hole is captured by a deep energy level, such as produced by a deep level dopant, before recombining with an opposite conductivity-type carrier.

RECORD (CLASS 369)
(1) (noun) The pattern of modulation by the information signal of the variable storage medium characteristic. (2) (verb) To effect storage of an information signal. As these terms have the same spelling the terms "store", "storage medium", and variants thereof will be preferred usage in the schedule and definitions in order to avoid confusion.

RECORD CARRIER (CLASS 369)
A tangible object upon which an information signal is stored, synonymous with storage medium.

RECORD-MEDIUM (CLASS 400)
A piece of material, usually paper but not limited to paper, on which material is recorded an imprint of a type-member* that is impressed against the material to form a character* to be read. The material may be a relatively thin "sheet" having a determinate width and a determinate length, or may be a "web" having a determinate width and an indeterminate length. The recording is usually by way of an ink* that coats the material in the form of a line representing a character; but other kinds of recording may be done, as, for example, embossing, which deforms the surface of the material to raise or lower the surface into a line representing the character, or perforating, which punches a plurality of holes in the material that taken together form a representation of a character.

RECOVERED OBJECTS (CLASS 171)
Articles or plants which were formerly at least partially surrounded by a mass of earth and which have been separated from said mass of earth as distinct objects, substantially free from said earth and available at some identifiable time for any desired purpose which may involve either use or destruction thereof.

RECOVERY (CLASS 423)
The extraction or removal of a valuable constituent from a raw material, by-product or waste product.

RECOVERY (CLASS 712)
Responding to a fault in a system by either returning a system to a previous level of correct operation, achieving a degraded level of correct operation, or safely shutting down the system.

RECOVERY (CLASS 713)
Responding to a fault in a system by either returning a system to a previous level of correct operation, achieving a degraded level of correct operation, or safely shutting down the system.

RECOVERY (CLASS 714)
Responding to a fault in a system by either returning a system to a previous level of correct operation, achieving a degraded level of correct operation, or safely shutting down the system.

RECRYSTALLIZATION (CLASS 148)
A thermal treatment of previously worked metal to effect an equiaxed microstructure through the nucleation of strain free grains and the gradual consumption of the worked matrix by the growth of these grains.

RECTIFIER (CLASS 330)
A device with a unilateral current characteristic which permits the passage of only D.C. current therethrough, and which is used to convert A.C. current applied thereto to D.C. current.

RECTILINEAR MOVEMENT OF CLOSURE (CLASS 049)
Straight line motion in opposite directions, such as up and down, right and left, to open or close a passage.

RED (CLASS 438)
radiation enhanced diffusion

REFINING (CLASS 208)
The removal of impurities or nonhydrocarbon, gums or gum forming components from a mineral oil or the conversion of such components to some less objectionable form (e.g., sweetening: conversion of mercaptans to disulfides).

REFLECTION (CLASS 356)
The return of light striking a surface back into the medium from which it came.

REFLECTION (CLASS 359)
Light striking a surface and returning back into the medium from which it came, at an angle equal but opposite to the angle of incidence.

REFLECTION (CLASS 372)
Light striking a surface and returning back into the medium from which it came.

REFLECTOR (CLASS 343)
A conductive structure, usually metallic (e.g., screen, rod or plate) which reradiates back into free space impinging electromagnetic radiation (waves) coming from or going to the active antenna, the velocity of the returned wave having a component in a direction opposite to the direction of velocity of the impinging wave, thereby to modify the radiation of the active antenna, there being no significant potential relationship between the active antenna and the conductive structure.

REFLECTOR (CLASS 362)
A light modifying device having a surface which redirects incident light back into the medium from which it came. Reflectors are more commonly opaque but may be transparent. Light incident on the redirecting surface of a transparent reflector may arrive from the transparent material of the reflector itself in which case it is redirected back into the transparent material of the reflector, or it may arrive at the redirecting surface from some other material (e.g., air) in which case it is redirected back into the other material. Whether a recited transparent modifier is a reflector or some other type of modifier or both depends, for purposes of classification within this class, on its proximate function according to the claim or claimed disclosure.

REFLECTOR (CLASS 376)
A volume of material placed around the active volume (core) or other neutron yielding source serving to scatter back into the active volume some of the neutrons which would otherwise be lost to the chain reaction thus permitting a reduction in the critical size of the active volume.

REFLEX KLYSTRON (CLASS 331)
A klystron utilizing only a single apertured cavity resonator through which the beam of charged particles passes in one direction, a repeller electrode being provided to repel or redirect the beam after passage through the resonator back through the resonator in the other direction and in proper phase to reinforce the oscillations set up in the resonator.

REFORMING (CLASS 208)
A chemical conversion operation which results in a change of the hydrocarbon molecule such that the product has substantially the same boiling range but has its "antiknock" or "octane" rating improved or increased. Various types of reaction are believed to be involved including cyclization, hydrogenation, dehydrogenation, alkylation, isomerization and dealkylation. Such reactions, if applied to a mineral oil, are classified in the subclass providing for reforming.

REFRACTION (CLASS 356)
The deviation of light which results when a ray of light passes obliquely from a medium of one density to a medium of another density.

REFRACTION (CLASS 359)
The deviation of light which results when a ray of light passes obliquely from a medium of one refractive index to a medium of another refractive index.

REFRACTION (CLASS 372)
The deviation of light which results when a ray of light passes obliquely from a medium of one density to a medium of another density.

REFRACTOR (CLASS 362)
A light modifier whose proximate function is to redirect light comprising a light pervious material having a pair of opposed surfaces, at least one of which is, at least in part, so angularly related to the other surface that the path of a light ray incident on one opposed surface of the material and the path of the same ray after it emerges from the material through the other opposed surface are not parallel. A nominally recited "lens" is considered a refractor for purposes of classification within this class only if the structural and functional characteristics of a refractor can be imputed to it from the claim or claimed disclosure. (See (1) Note to the definition of "Modifier," above).

REFRACTORY (CLASS 428)
Various materials, but usually clays or other cementitious or silicon containing. Consider to be silicon unless clearly disclosed otherwise, as for example alumina. The refractory metals are those in Groups IVB, VB and VIB of the Periodic System. (Nonstructural or Composition)

REFRACTORY (CLASS 501)
Compositions which are specifically formulated to be resistant to abrasion, corrosion and physical or chemical disintegration when subjected to high temperatures, chemically corrosive environments and/or rapid temperature changes.

(1) Note. Refractory materials are typically used to produce furnace and kiln linings, fire brick, kiln furniture and saggers, and pyroceramic cones.

(2) Note. Among naturally occurring materials widely used in making refractory products are, e.g., magnesite, dolomite, and chrome- magnesite.

REFRACTORY METAL* (CLASS 075)
A metal of the group Titanium (Ti), Zirconium (Zr), Hafnium (Hf), Vanadium (V), Niobium (Nb) or Columbium (Cb), Tantalum (Ta), Chromium (Cr), Molybdenum (Mo), and Tungsten (W).

REFRACTORY METAL* (CLASS 420)
A metal of the group Titanium, Zirconium, Hafnium, Vanadium, Niobium, Tantalum, Chromium, Molybdenum and Tungsten.

REFRACTORY METALS (CLASS 257)
Ti, V, Cr, Zr, Nb, Mo, Hf, Ta, W.

REFRACTORY METALS (CLASS 423)
Those metals in Group IV B, V B and VIB of the periodic system, consisting of Ti, Zr, Hf, V, Nb, Ta, Cr, Mo and W, some of which are used in making bricks or cement which resist heat and are slow to soften.

REFUSE (CLASS 110)
A combustible waste material which is burned for the sole or primary purpose of disposing of that material.

REGENERATION (CLASS 095)
Restoration of the separatory material to the condition it was in before the separatory process.

REGENERATION (CLASS 096)
Restoration of the separatory material to the condition it was in before the separatory process.

REGISTERING (CLASS 425)
Providing an exact fit of mating parts.

REGULATION (CLASS 320)
Control of one or more characteristics or conditions whereby said characteristics or conditions can be maintained at some predetermined value, or can be varied over a plurality of values.

REINFORCEMENT, EMBEDDED (CLASS 052)
A body placed within and covered by a cast material or a foraminous member wherein the holes are filled by a cast material.

RELAXATION OSCILLATOR (CLASS 331)
A free running oscillator for generating decidedly non sinusoidal waves. They usually utilize a time constant network of the RC or RL type as the frequency determining element.

RELEASER (CLASS 221)
This term as used herein includes elastic means (spring form) and spring biased means as well.

REMOVABLE CLOSURE (CLASS 049)
A closure which is mounted so as to be readily physically disassociated from its supporting structure to form a passage.

REMOVE (CLASS 099)
To spatially separate significantly one portion of food from another.

REPAIR (CLASS 029)
The physical act of or means for restoring inoperative machines, apparatus, static structures, and things (articles) when the operational limits of tolerance have become exceeded by wear, imperfections, destructive oxidation, electrolysis, or failure by (1) reshaping parts, (2) substituting a part and/or adding supplemental or additional parts or material, and/or (3) taking away sections of worn, torn, broken, distorted, eroded or otherwise unusable parts or material, and mending them by adding supplemental or additional parts or material.

REPEATER (CLASS 725)
A combination of apparatus for receiving either one-way or two-way communication signals and delivering corresponding signals which are either amplified, reshaped, or both. A repeater for one-way communication signals is termed a "one-way repeater" and one for two-way communication signals a "two-way repeater" .

REPETITIOUS WAVE (CLASS 329)
A cyclic wave whose individual component cycles are substantially identical. Examples of repetitious waves are sine waves, square waves, saw-tooth waves and trapezoidal waves.

REPETITIOUS WAVE (CLASS 332)
Is a cyclic wave whose individual component cycles are substantially identical. Examples of repetitious waves are sine waves, square waves, saw-tooth waves, and trapezoidal waves.

REPULSION MOTOR (CLASS 318)
An induction motor (defined in INDUCTION MOTORS above) in which the secondary or induced member is provided with a commutator, the commutator being engaged with a pair of circumferencially spaced short-circuited brushes, and in which either means (e.g., an auxiliary winding) is provided in inductive relation to the secondary to produce a magnetic field in time phase with, and displaced in relation to, the field produced by the primary or inducing member, or the brushes are displaced from the mid-position between adjacent primary (winding) pole positions whereby the motor may operate continuously under running-speed conditions. See the definition of self-commutated impulse or reluctance motors.

RESERVOIR (CLASS 401)
A container or retainer for storing fluent coating material.

RESHAPING (CLASS 065)
Changing the gross overall configuration of a glass preform by (a) confining a glass preform within a configured mold and effecting significant flow of the glass to cause it to assume the configuration of the mold or (b) distorting a glass preform by bodily moving a portion of it throughout its entire thickness relative to a second portion during which the thickness of the work piece remains substantially the same and no significant flow of the glass occurs, i.e., bending. Changing at least one dimension of a glass preform throughout its perimeter without any appreciable change in the original configuration thereof, e.g., stretching and shrinking.

RESHAPING (CLASS 264)
A process in which a self sustaining body or a preform is subjected to a deforming, e.g., by plastic flow, bending, stretching, twisting, corrugating, so as to alter its overall shape.

RESHAPING (CLASS 425)
Changing the configuration of a preform to a desired shape (deformation involving a surface rather than an entire layer is included).

RESIDUE (CLASS 210)
Material retained by membrane, septum, filter, settling tank, etc.

RESILIENT (CLASS 221)
A means permitting segregation or separation of articles by unassisted gravitational movement thereof, supports or restraining means being rendered inoperative as to the articles to be dispensed and operative as to those to be retained, with return to the previous state after the dispensing operation. Such means are permissive as distinguished from discharge assistants which are affirmative force applying means (compulsive).

RESILIENT* (CLASS 024)
Structure which is both capable (a) of distortion when subjected to a force of the magnitude normally encountered within the disclosed environment and (b) of complete resumption of its original shape due to the energy stored within it by the distortion force after its removal.

RESIN CAPTURE (CLASS 506)
Method involving contacting the reaction medium with a solid support after a reaction is performed in solution in order to attach the reaction product to the resin and thus collect the reaction product easily.

RESISTANCE (CLASS 338)
The property of a mass of material to impede the flow of a steady or fluctuating current passing through the mass by conversion of electrical energy into heat.

RESISTANCE ELEMENT (CLASS 338)
The part of the resistor which actually possesses the resistance characteristic, and which may be a homogeneous mass of material having a resistance characteristic.

RESISTANCE TERMINAL (CLASS 338)
Ordinarily one of the spaced conductors in physical contact with the resistance element, and being appreciably more conductive (less resistive) than the resistance element. The terminals are for the purpose of connecting the resistance element in an external electric circuit. Since all resistors must include terminals in the sense that some structure is necessary to permit energization of the resistance element, the term "terminal" is sufficiently broad to include one of the free ends of the resistance element.

RESISTIVITY (CLASS 257)
A measure of the resistance of a material to electric current. Resistivity is a bulk material property, measured in ohm-cm.

RESISTIVITY (CLASS 438)
A measure of the resistance of a material to electric current. Resistivity is a bulk material property measured in ohm-cm.

RESISTOR (CLASS 338)
An apparatus or device exhibiting only and significantly a resistance characteristic as above defined to the current flowing therethrough, the inductive or capacitive effects being negligible. A resistor includes essentially a resistance element and spaced terminals.

RESIZING (CLASS 425)
Changing a dimension but not the overall configuration.

RESONANCE (CLASS 334)
The point in the adjustment of a tuned circuit to a particular channel or signal frequency at which the inductive reactance equals the capacitive reactance. The resonance frequency may also be described as the point where the oscillation or vibration present in the circuit may be maintained with the least amount of external excitation with the excitation producing a relatively large amplitude of oscillation or vibration.

RESONANT CAVITY (CLASS 372)
A mode-selecting low-loss optical structure in which the laser action takes place by the build-up of electromagnetic field intensity upon multiple reflection.

RESONANT CIRCUIT (CLASS 330)
A circuit containing both inductive and capacitive reactance and in which the inductive reactance equals the capacitive reactance for a particular frequency. The resonant circuit may be series resonant, where the reactive elements are in series; or parallel (anti-resonant), where the inductive and capacitive elements are in parallel. See also, Resonator.

RESONANT TUNNELLING DEVICE (CLASS 257)
A device that works on the principle of resonant electron (or hole) tunneling through a pair of matched potential barriers. This occurs when the energy of the electrons (or holes) matches that of a quantum energy level in the quantum well formed between the barriers.

RESONANT TUNNELLING DEVICE (CLASS 438)
A device that works on the principle of resonant electron (or hole) tunneling through a pair of matched potential barriers. This occurs when the energy of the electrons (or holes) matches that of a quantum energy level in the quantum well formed between the barriers.

RESONATOR (CLASS 330)
Devices comprising conductive enclosures, cavities, or wave transmission line sections of the two terminal type, and having distributed inductance and capacitance, the line sections being terminated in other than the characteristic impedance of the line sections, the devices presenting resonant characteristics to the existing source of wave energy. See also Resonant Circuit.

RESONATOR (CLASS 333)
Devices comprising conductive enclosures, cavities, or wave transmission line sections of the two terminal type, and having distributed inductance and capacitance, the line sections being terminated in other than the characteristic impedance of the line sections, the devices presenting resonant characteristics to the existing source of wave energy.

RESONATOR OR RESONANT CIRCUIT (CLASS 331)
A frequency determining means comprised of substantially pure reactances of opposite signs (i.e., mass and compliance in a mechanical resonator or inductive and capacitive reactance in an electrical resonator) wherein the phenomenon of resonance (i.e., when the positive and negative reactances are equal) is relied upon to determine the frequency of the generated waves.

RESOURCE (CLASS 709)
Any part of computer system or a network, such as a disk drive, printer, or memory, that can be allotted to a program or process while it is running. In programming, a resource can be used by more than one program or in more than one place in a program; for example, dialog boxes, bitmaps, and fonts are resources in many windowing programs.

RESOURCE (CLASS 718)
Any part of computer system or a network, such as a disk drive, printer, or memory, that can be allotted to a program or process while it is running. In programming, a resource can be used by more than one program or in more than one place in a program. For example, dialog boxes, bitmaps, and fonts are resources in many windowing programs.

RESOURCE (CLASS 719)
Any part of computer system or a network, such as a disk drive, printer, or memory, that can be allotted to a program or process while it is running. In programming, a resource can be used by more than one program or in more than one place in a program. For example, dialog boxes, bitmaps, and fonts are resources in many windowing programs.

RESTRICTED SPACE (CLASS 343)
A space or medium which tends to confine the energy within specified boundaries along a predetermined path, as wave guides, hollow resonators, conductive wires.

resurf (CLASS 438)
reduced surface field

RETAINER (CLASS 403)
A component comprising a discrete element which serves either to hold the members against separation or to hold another component in its proper position.

RETARDER (CLASS 431)
A device that provides for the delay of completion of performance of an operation after its initiating signal has been given, e.g., dashpot, time delay switch, etc.

RETARDING FIELD TUBE (CLASS 331)
A tube having at least three electrodes, i.e., a source of electrons (cathode), control electrode (grid) and anode or plate electrode, the control electrode being biased positively with respect to the other electrodes. The electrode bias potentials are so chosen that the electrons attracted from the cathode by the positive grid pass through the grid and are slowed down by the repelling effect of the less positive (or negative) anode field and are returned back to or through the grid. This phenomenon is repeated again and again so that a cloud of electrons are caused to sweep back and forth through the grip, giving up energy to the grid at a frequency which is a function of the transit time of the cloud of electrons. The Barkhausen Kurz, Gill-Morrell and the reflex klystron are examples of oscillators utilizing a retarding field tube.

RETENTATE (CLASS 210)
Material held back by membrane or filter, not allowed to migrate or pass through.

RETRACTION (CLASS 175)
Motion in a direction away from the bottom of a hole being formed.

RETRIEVAL (CLASS 369)
Production or reproduction of a stored information signal from the storage medium characteristics.

RETROREFLECTION (CLASS 359)
Light striking a surface and returning back into the medium in the reverse direction (i.e., a 180 degree change from its original path).

RETT (CLASS 438)
resonant electron transfer triode

REVEAL (CLASS 052)
The sides of a door or window opening between the faces of the barrier.

REVERBERATORY FURNACE (CLASS 075)
An enclosed furnace in which the material to be heated is placed in the bottom of the furnace and gaseous fuel is burned over the top of the material or the flame or combustion products from burning solid fuel separately from the material to be heated are reflected by the top of the furnace and passed over the material. Types of reverberatory furnace are the Siemen-Martin furnace, the open hearth furnace, and the puddling furnace.

REVERSE BIAS (CLASS 257)
A voltage applied across a semiconductor junction in the reverse direction, i.e., wherein a positive potential is connected to the n-type semiconductor and a negative potential is applied to the p-type semiconductor.

REVERSE BREAKDOWN VOLTAGE (CLASS 257)
The reverse bias voltage value at which electrical resistance drops appreciably and operating current sharply increases.

REVERSE CURRENT (CLASS 257)
The current flowing through a rectifying junction with a reverse voltage thereacross.

REVERSE OSMOSIS (CLASS 210)
See OSMOSIS.

REVERSING CONTROL (CLASS 318)
Motor systems in which means are provided for operating the motor in one direction at one time and in the opposite direction at another time, or for causing the motor to operate in a direction opposite to that in which it has previously been operating. In reversing motor systems, means must be provided for causing the motor to produce a torque in both directions of operations. Where the motor current is controlled only to bring the motor to a stop or to brake the motor, there being no operation in the reverse direction, the system is classified as motor braking or as motor deceleration control, depending upon whether the motor is merely braked or whether the rate of deceleration is controlled. See the class definition for a definition of deceleration control and motor braking control in the class definition for a definition of braking control.

RF (CLASS 438)
radiofrequency

RHEED (CLASS 438)
reflected high energy electron diffraction

RHET (CLASS 438)
resonant tunneling hot electron transistor (bipolar)

RIBBON (CLASS 400)
A piece of elongated and relatively thin transfer-medium* material impregnated with, or carrying, ink* that is to be applied to a record-medium*, which material is interposed between the record-medium and a type-face* that is at the print-point*. When the type-face is impressed against the record-medium (with the ribbon therebetween) a portion of the ink on the ribbon will be transferred to the record-medium to form a readable character* symbol corresponding to the symbol on the type-face that was impressed against the record-medium. Although in most typewriters the ribbon is an elongated relatively narrow strip of material, these dimensions are not critical in its usage as a ribbon. (For example, a ribbon may be narrow and sufficiently short to be held in the hand of a typist while being temporarily positioned adjacent to the print-point, or a ribbon may be elongated and as wide as the record-medium to be typed on.) What is critical in its usage as a ribbon for making an original copy is (a) its location directly between the record-medium and the type-face that is at the print-point, and (b) the use of a "permanent" or not easily erasable ink; the combination forms an original copy of the typed text, in contrast to a carbon copy. (See the definitions of transfer-medium and ink in this Glossary for a discussion of carbon copy). Among the various forms of ribbon used in a typewriter are: (a) a fabric ribbon coated or impregnated with "permanent" ink, the ribbon being reusable many times or until the ink therein is depleted, and producing an original copy; (b) a carbon-ink ribbon coated with permanent ink, the ribbon being usually a single-use ribbon due to the operation wherein all or most of the coating is deposited on the record-medium during the impact of a type-face thereagainst, and producing an original copy (see the definition of transfer-medium in this Glossary, for a discussion of the difference between the permanent ink used in a carbon-ink ribbon, and the carbon coating of a "carbon-paper" transfer-medium); (c) a "hectographic" ribbon that uses a soluble ink and produces a "master" plate subsequently used in a spirit duplicating copy process; (d) a carbon-paper ribbon coated with a substance containing carbon or other pigment to produce a carbon copy that is easily erasable; (e) a "correction" ribbon that is used to correct an error in typing as discussed in the definition of subclass 697 below. It should be noted that in early typewriter technology the term "ribbon" usually referred only to a fabric ribbon mentioned above; therefore, unless a disclosure particularly describes a ribbon by an intended function or specific coating, it should be assumed that a fabric ribbon is disclosed.

RIBE (CLASS 438)
reactive ion beam etching

RIE (CLASS 438)
reactive ion etching

RIGID (CLASS 403)
Structure which when subjected to a distortion force normally encountered within the environment (as defined by the disclosure), is capable of resisting this force if applied to the structure in any orientation and maintaining its previous formational shape thereafter.

RIGID* (CLASS 024)
Structure which when subjected to a distortion force normally encountered within the environment (as defined by the disclosure and associated with the securing operation of a Class 24 fastener) is capable of resisting this force if applied to the structure in any orientation and maintaining its previous formational shape thereafter.

RIM (CLASS 351)
A grooved-optical element made from metal or plastic material for framing lenses.

RING HETERO ATOM (CLASS 532)
This term denotes nitrogen, oxygen, sulfur, selenium or tellurium as a ring member, i.e., as one of the members which forms a hetero ring.

RING NITROGEN (CLASS 532)
This term denotes that nitrogen is one of the members which form a ring. Nitrogen bonded directly to a ring is not a ring nitrogen. Terms such as ring sulfur and ring oxygen are used similarly.

RISC (CLASS 438)
reduced instruction set computing

RISER (CLASS 164)
A reservoir of molten metal provided for feeding into a casting as the metal in the mold solidifies thus preventing voids.

RMS (CLASS 438)
refined metallurgical silicon

ROCHELLE SALT (CLASS 117)
Potassium sodium tartrate; KNaTartrate.4H2O; (KNaCO2CHOHCHOHCO2.4H2O); (KNaC4H4O6.4H2O). Seignette's salt.

ROCKING (CLASS 366)
Moving back and forth as a result of a back and forth motion of a curved surface on a flat surface.

ROD (CLASS 428)
A relatively rigid and slender element having a width and thickness of the same order of magnitude, a length which may be either indeterminate or finite, and a cross-section which may be of any shape. (Structural)

ROI (CLASS 438)
recessed oxide isolation

ROLL (CLASS 226)
A shaft-mounted rotatable body, usually cylindrical, a portion of the periphery of which engages material. Although a roll is usually cylindrical, the term is used in this class to include a conical, truncated conical, or spherical body, a portion of the periphery of which engages the material to be moved.

ROLL (CLASS 425)
An endless shaping surface which has a substantially circular cross-section.

ROLL-COUPLE (CLASS 226)
A group of at least two rolls*, material being disposed therebetween in simultaneous tangential and/or peripheral engagement with all rolls, the roll(s) on one side of the material counter-rotating relative to the roll(s) on the other side of such material. An example of a roll-couple comprising more than two elements, is a plurality of equal-diameter rolls co-axially mounted, all of which rolls are opposed by a single, parallel roll.

ROLLER (CLASS 072)
A deforming instrumentality having a work- engaging, work-deforming peripheral surface which is generated by a line revolving about an axis, said instrumentality being disclosed as revolving about said axis so that successive peripheral portions thereof cyclically move into and out of contact with a work surface during deformation of the work, relative movement occurring, during deformation, between said axis and the work surface along a direction parallel to the work surface, thereby producing a relative rolling motion between the roller surface and the work surface as contrasted with sliding motion (i.e., the surfaces move in the same direction at substantially the same linear speed).

(1) Note. The generating line of the peripheral surface may have any continuous profile (e.g., straight, curved, or irregular), and the line may have any desired inclination, other than at right angles, relative to the axis. Thus, to be considered a "Roller", any and all cross sections taken at right angles to the axis must show a circular work-engaging periphery.

(2) Note. A hollow member wherein the interior surface is generated and used as described is also considered to be a "Roller".

(3) Note. A plurality of tools rotatable about the same axis in the same direction and at the same rotational speed is considered to be a single "Roller" in the environment described herein.

ROLLER (CLASS 228)
A tangible instrumentality having a peripheral surface which is generated by a line revolving about an axis, said instrumentality being disclosed as revolving about said axis so that successive peripheral portions thereof cyclically move into and out of engagement with a generally planar surface of another member, with relative movement occurring between said axis and the planar surface along a direction parallel to the planar surface, thereby producing a relative rolling motion between the roller surface and the planar surface as contrasted with a sliding motion, (i.e., the surfaces move in the same direction at substantially the same linear speed so that there is no relative linear movement between the roller surface and the planar surface at point of engagement).

(1) Note. The generating line of the peripheral surface of the roller may have any continuous profile (e.g., straight, curved, or irregular), and the line may have any desired inclination, other than at right angles, relative to the axis. Thus, to be considered a ROLLER, any and all cross-sections taken at right angles to the axis must show a circular material engaging periphery.

ROLLER CLUSTER (CLASS 072)
A group of three or more rollers* disposed relatively to one another and to the work* such that the work passes between the rollers with a peripheral surface portion of each roller engaging a surface portion of the work, the engaged surface portions being substantially coextensive in the direction of movement of the work, and the rollers simultaneously deforming the work.

ROLLER COUPLE (CLASS 072)
A group of two coacting rollers* disposed opposite one another such that work passes therebetween, the adjacent peripheral surfaces of both rollers simultaneously engaging opposite sides, or opposed surfaces portions, of the work passing between the rollers and thus deforming that work.

ROLLER-LIKE MEMBER (CLASS 228)
A tangible rotating instrumentality having a peripheral surface with some, but not all, of the characteristics of a roller*.

(1) Note. (a) In a first type of roller-like member the surface is generated by a line revolving about an axis (thus the member looks like a roller), but there is relative movement between the surface of the roller-like member and another member to produce sliding action therebetween; or; (b) In a second type of roller-like member the relative movement of the roller-like member and another member and another member produces rolling engagement between their respective surfaces (thus the roller-like member acts like a roller), but the surface is not generated by a revolving line (e.g., the roller-like member is rough, gear-like, or recessed).

ROLLER-LIKE TOOL (CLASS 072)
A deforming instrumentality having a work- engaging, work-deforming tool surface with some, but not all, of the characteristics of a roller*.

(1) Note. Usually (a) the surface is generated by a line revolving about an axis (thus the tool looks like a roller), but the relative movement of the axis and work produces a sliding motion of tool surface relative to work surface; or (b) the relative movement of the tool axis and the work produces a rolling motion of tool surface on work surface (thus the tool acts like a roller), but the surface is not formed as a roller (e.g., the tool surface is rough, or gearlike, or recessed).

ROM (CLASS 438)
read only memory

ROOF (CLASS 373)
A cover, or lid for the furnace.

ROOF (SEE COVER) (CLASS 052)
A rigid cover extending above and supported by the uppermost termini of walls or columns.

ROSIN (CLASS 428)
See natural oil, gum, rosin or lac. (Nonstructural or Composition)

ROTARY KILN (CLASS 075)
An approximately cylindrical apparatus which rotates on its axis in operation. The axis is horizontal or inclined less than 45 degrees from horizontal. Usually, the axis is slightly inclined from horizontal. In operation the kiln rotates substantially continuously in one direction.

ROTATING (CLASS 366)
Turning in but one direction about an axis.

ROTOR-TYPE COMBINE (CLASS 460)
A machine equipped with rotor or cylinder designed so that the crop stays in contact with the cylinder for several complete revolutions.

ROUTING (CLASS 709)
Receiving transmitted messages within a network and forwarding them to their correct destinations over a available route selected according to a predetermined criteria.

ROUTING (CLASS 718)
Receiving transmitted messages within a network and forwarding them to their correct destinations over a available route selected according to a predetermined criteria.

ROUTING (CLASS 719)
Receiving transmitted messages within a network and forwarding them to their correct destinations over a available route selected according to a predetermined criteria.

ROX (CLASS 438)
recessed oxide

RTA (CLASS 438)
rapid thermal anneal

RTP (CLASS 438)
rapid thermal processing

RUNNER (CLASS 415)
A member which is or which supports a means contacting a working fluid, the member being mounted or supported so as to be capable of unidirectional rotational or orbital movement for at least one revolution or orbit (in the absence of control means for limiting movement to part of a revolution or orbit), the member being (1) caused to so move by the kinetic or potential energy of the working fluid, or (2) caused to move by some external force to increase the energy (velocity, pressure or potential) in the working fluid by transfer of kinetic energy from the member to the fluid. This member may also variously be called a rotor, wheel, piston or bucket wheel in the art literature.

RUNNING SPEED CONTROL (CLASS 318)
Motor systems in which means are provided for regulating or controlling the speed of an electric motor after it has been accelerated to some operating speed at which it is designed to run until the work or useful load device driven by the motor has performed its duty at that speed.

(1) Note. Means for controlling the speed of the motor during the starting or accelerating period of operation (i.e., means for controlling the rate of change of speed) are not classified herein even though the claims may term such control as "speed" control, but are classified under "acceleration". For a definition of acceleration control, see section IB4a, of the class definition. Since it is common practice to use the acceleration means for also controlling the running-speed of the motor, patents in which both acceleration and running-speed are claimed and in which both controls are effected by precisely the same means in whole or in part, classification will be on the basis of acceleration control only. Under these circumstances of control when some claims refer only to "running-speed" control and/or some other claims refer only to acceleration control, classification will only be on the basis of the acceleration control. When, however, acceleration and running-speed control means are claimed in combination and any means not a part of the acceleration means are used to control the running-speed, classification will be on the basis of combined motor-operation controls including acceleration and running-speed control. Where means are employed to affect the magnitude of the running-speed of an electric motor and the magnitude of the means (e.g., resistance, reactance, voltage, etc.), or the position (e.g., angle of brush position), of the running-speed control means is not varied or changed, either inherently or otherwise, at any time during the period of acceleration, classification will be on the basis of running-speed control and not on the basis of acceleration control even though there may be some effect on the rate of acceleration. For example, a motor speed control system comprising a fixed resistor connected in the armature circuit, the magnitude of the resistance of which resistor does not vary appreciably under the conditions of use and which resistor is not varied or removed from the circuit during the acceleration period is classifiable under running speed control and not under acceleration control. Since some running-speed control means may be similar or even identical with some acceleration control means, searches for motor acceleration control should be, in appropriate instances, extended to include the running-speed control art.

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