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USPTO Terms of Art — N

Glossary of USPTO Terms of Art

| A | B | C-CL | CM-CZ | D-DIM | DIM-DZ | E | F | G | H | I | J-K | L | M-MET | MET-MZ | N | O | P-PHA | PHE-PON | POR-PZ | Q | R | S-SEPA | SEPO-SMT | SN-STEM | STEP-SZ | T-TOG | TON-TZ | U | V | W | X-Z |

N-CHANNEL FET (CLASS 257)
A field effect transistor that has an n-type conduction channel.

N-CHANNEL FET (CLASS 438)
A field effect transistor that has an n-type conduction channel.

N-TYPE CONDUCTIVITY (CLASS 330)
The characteristic of a semiconductor material, usually imparted by the addition of impurities of the "donor" type, of an excess of free electrons over holes (free positive charges) at any time at room temperature, such negative charge carriers or electrons being referred to as majority carriers for current flow in such material, and holes as minority carriers for such current flow.

N-TYPE SEMICONDUCTOR (CLASS 257)
An extrinsic semiconductor having n-type dopant atoms, e.g., atoms with one more valence electron than the host atoms.

N-TYPE SEMICONDUCTOR (CLASS 257)
An extrinsic semiconductor in which electron density exceeds hole density.

N-TYPE SEMICONDUCTOR (CLASS 438)
An extrinsic semiconductor having n-type dopant atoms (e.g., atoms with one or more valence electron than the host atoms). Electron density exceeds hole density.

NANOCLUSTER (CLASS 977)
Cluster of atoms or molecules whose characteristic dimensions are a few nanometers; sometimes synonymous with nanocrystal or denoting structures smaller than nanocrystals.

NANOCOMPOSITE (CLASS 977)
Composite structure whose characteristic dimensions are found at the nanoscale.

NANOCRYSTAL (CLASS 977)
Nanoscopic particle containing a few hundred to a few tens of thousands of atoms, and arranged in an orderly, crystalline structure; often refers to metallic nanoparticles.

NANOPORE (CLASS 977)
Pore of nanometer dimensions.

NANOROD (CLASS 977)
Nanostructures shaped like long sticks or dowels with a diameter in the nanoscale but having a length that is very much longer.

NANOTUBE (CLASS 977)
Fullerene molecule having a cylindrical or toroidal shape.

NANOTWEEZERS (CLASS 977)
Element used to pick up and place individual nanosized particles, usually including two opposing nanosized elements, such as nanotubes, etc., that pick and place the nanosized particles.

NANOWHISKER (CLASS 977)
Often synonymous with nanorod, nanowire, or nanotube.

NANOWIRE (CLASS 977)
Electrically conductive nanorod; alternatively, a wire with a diameter of nanometer dimensions.

NATURAL OIL OR GUM, ROSIN OR LAC (CLASS 428)
Any oil, gum or resin that occurs in nature, as cottonseed, linseed and castor oils, rosin, mineral oil and the exudation of insects known as lac. These three classes of oil; drying, semidrying and nondrying oil are included within the scope of the term. (Nonstructural or Composition)

NATURAL RESIN (CLASS 520)
Denotes the following: Those materials which have been customarily employed as such in the paint, lacquer, varnish, adhesive, and ink trades. Thus, "natural resin" is a term of art. Natural resins include but are not limited to shellac, copals from various sources, e.g., Congo, manila, etc.; amber, dammar, dead dammar, rosin (colophony), gum rosin, wood rosin, burgundy pitch, gurjun balsam, Canada balsam, sandarac, mastic, accroides, benzoin, elemi, gamboge, gum thus, venice turpentine, bordeaux turpentine, abietic acid, pimaric acid, etc. Tall oil, per se, is not treated as a natural resin unless the rosin content is specifically stated. In the event the rosin content is not stated, tall oil is treated as an unsaturated fatty acid derived from naturally occurring glycerides. Unless indicated to the contrary, "rosin" is presumed to be primarily abietic acid.

NATURAL RESIN DERIVATIVE (CLASS 520)
Denotes the following: A. Heat decomposition products of natural resins which contain a hydroaromatic nucleus and which are unprovided for elsewhere. B. Materials described by patentee as natural resins. C. Modifications of natural resins wherein the carbon structure of the abietyl nucleus is retained, including but not limited to: abietyl amine, dehydroabietyl amine, abietyl alcohol, zinc abietate, hydrogenated rosin, dehydroabietic acid, disproportioned rosin, rosin esters, ester gum (i.e., triglyceride of rosin), polymerized ester gum, hydrogenated ester gum, oxidized ester gum, etc. D. Other modified natural resins; for example, aceto- and butyro-copal, copal ester, etc.

NATURAL RUBBER (CLASS 428)
Containing the natural gum, know as caoutchouc, gutta percha, or balata obtained from the latex or sap of "rubber" trees. The word "rubber" standing alone is considered to denote natural rubber. (Nonstructural or Composition)

NAVIGATION (CLASS 701)
The determination of a course, position, or distance traveled.

NDC (CLASS 438)
negative differential conductivity

NDM (CLASS 257)
Negative differential mobility (e.g., Gunn effect) intervalley active semiconductor devices wherein an applied electric field imparts energy to electrons or holes to permit them to jump to higher quantum electronic intervalley energy levels in which electrons have lowered electron mobility.

NEA (CLASS 438)
negative electron affinity (e-emitter)

NEAR FIELD (CLASS 342)
The electromagnetic field within a distance of 1 wavelength from a transmitting antenna.

NEAR FIELD SCANNING OPTICAL MICROSCOPE (CLASS 977)
Scanning probe microscope that analyzes an object by recording light intensity focused through a pipette in the tip and scanned across the object at a distance less than a wavelength of the light.

NEAR VIDEO-ON-DEMAND (NVOD) (CLASS 725)
A programming event that is provided upon request, in which the event is broadcast on plural channels in time-staggered intervals. These events are distributed to all subscribers, but enabled on an individual basis through an interactive process. Due to the mode of distribution, requests can be processed "near on-demand", with a delay which is inversely proportional to the broadcast interval.

NECK RING (CLASS 065)
That portion of a segmented mold used to form a neck portion of a hollow article.

NECK RING (CLASS 425)
The portion of a segmented mold which forms the neck portion of a hollow article.

NEGATIVE (CLASS 355)
A visible image on a copy material in which the dark portions of an original appear light and the light portions appear dark.

NEGATIVE (CLASS 399)
A visible image on a copy material in which the dark portions of an original appear light and the light portions appear dark.

NEGATIVE FEEDBACK (CLASS 330)
Signal feedback having at least some component thereof in opposite phase with the signal at the point where the signal feedback is applied.

NEGATIVE RESISTANCE OR NEGATIVE TRANSCONDUCTANCE DEVICE (CLASS 331)
An active element of the two terminal type having a volt-ampere characteristic with negative slope over the range of voltages or currents wherein it is operative, that is, an increase in voltage results in a decrease in current, or vice versa.

NEGATIVE RESISTANCE REGION (CLASS 257)
An operating region of an active solid-state electronic device in which an increase in applied voltage results in a decrease in output current.

NEGATIVE RESISTANCE REGION (CLASS 438)
An operating region of an active solid-state electronic device in which an increase in applied voltage results in a decrease in output current.

NEGATIVE RESISTOR (CLASS 338)
A resistor wherein the derivative of the voltage across the resistor with respect to the current passing through is negative over a portion of the current range.

NEGATIVE TEMPERATURE COEFFICIENT (CLASS 257)
The amount of reduction in a device parameter, such as capacitance or resistance, for each degree of device operating temperature.

NEGATIVE TEMPERATURE COEFFICIENT (CLASS 438)
The amount of reduction in a device parameter, such as capacitance or resistance, for each degree of device operating temperature.

NETWORK (CLASS 333)
A network is made up of two or more resistances, inductances, capacities or mutual inductances connected together in some manner.

NETWORK (CLASS 709)
A group of computers and associated devices that are connected by communications facilities which exists to provide computer users with the means of communicating and transferring information electronically. Some types of communication are simple user-to-user messages; others, of the type known as distributed processes, can involve several computers and the sharing of workloads or cooperative efforts in performing a task.

NETWORK (CLASS 718)
A group of computers and associated devices that are connected by communications facilities which exists to provide computer users with the means of communicating and transferring information electronically. Some types of communication are simple user-to-user messages; others, of the type known as distributed processes, can involve several computers and the sharing of workloads or cooperative efforts in performing a task.

NETWORK (CLASS 719)
A group of computers and associated devices that are connected by communications facilities which exists to provide computer users with the means of communicating and transferring information electronically. Some types of communication are simple user-to-user messages; others, of the type known as distributed processes, can involve several computers and the sharing of workloads or cooperative efforts in performing a task.

NETWORK (CLASS 725)
A series of points interconnected by communication channels. Also, any set of devices or subsystems connected by links joining (directly or indirectly) a set of terminal nodes. Also, an arrangement of components or nodes and interconnecting branches.

NEURAL NETWORK ARCHITECTURE (CLASS 706)
Neural Network Topology and functions computed by the neuron processors.

NEURAL NETWORK TOPOLOGY (CLASS 706)
Interconnection pattern between neuron processors.

NEUTRALIZATION MEANS (CLASS 330)
Circuit means to eliminate, mitigate, or lessen undesirable effects of inter-electrode capacitance or inter-electrode impedance and which may include the input and/or output impedance of the amplifying device involved (such input or output impedance includes the inter-electrode impedance of the input or output electrodes).

NEUTRON ABSORBING MATERIAL (CLASS 376)
As it relates to nuclear reactors, a substance that poses a high neutron absorption ability.

NEUTRON APLIFICATION (CLASS 376)
See Subcritical Reactor.

NIPPERS (CLASS 070)
Manually controlled portable devices for grasping, clamping, gripping or grappling an extremity of the human anatomy and by the application of suitable force and consequent imposition of pain placing the individual to whom the device is applied under the influence and control of another, as in the case of an arrested individual.

NITRATE V. NITRO (CLASS 149)
The term "nitrate" is generally used as a suffix in the name of an organic compound, e.g., an ester containing the -ONO2 radical, e.g., guanidine nitrate, while "nitro" is generally used as a prefix to designate an organic compound having the -NO2 radical, e.g. nitro-guanidine. The art, however has not maintained this distinction in all cases and thus compounds having the -ONO2 radical which should be known, more properly, as "nitrates", instead, have been known through the years as "nitro" compounds. No attempt is made in this class to correct this situation and the terms as applied to these compounds in this class are the same as are currently accepted and used in this and related arts. For example, the nitrates of such compounds as cellulose, glycerine and starch, among others, are commonly known as "nitro-cellulose", "nitroglycerine" and "nitro-starch" respectively, and when they so appear in this class, the reference, in spite of the inconsistency, is to a compound of the -NO3 radical or -ONO2.

NITRATED (CLASS 149)
As used in this class, unless otherwise specified, is intended as a generic expression for compounds or substances both organic and inorganic which contain at least one of the empirical radical (s)-(ONOx)y or -(NOx)y, wherein "x" and "y" are whole numbers. Predominately, in this class "x" is 2 and "y", where the compound permits, is 3 or more.

NITRIDING (CLASS 148)
A process wherein a metal substrate is treated with an externally supplied source of nitrogen resulting in an increased nitrogen content of the metal by chemical reaction or diffusion.

NITROCYCLIC (CLASS 260)
Denotes the presence of a ring, all of whose ring atoms are nitrogens, e.g., azides, etc.

NITROCYCLIC (CLASS 532)
This term denotes a ring or ring system where all ring members are nitrogens.

NMA (CLASS 438)
N-methyl-acetamide

NMOS (CLASS 257)
N-channel metal oxide semiconductor devices which use electrons as majority carriers.

NMOS (CLASS 438)
N-channel metal oxide semiconductor devices which use electrons as majority carriers.

NMOS (CLASS 438)
n-channel MOSFET

NMP (CLASS 438)
n-methyl-pyrrolidone

NOBLE GAS* (CLASS 075)
An element of the group Helium (He), Neon (Ne), Argon (Ar), Krypton (Kr), Xenon (X), and Radon (Rn).

NOBLE GASES (CLASS 257)
He, Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe, Rn.

NOBLE GASES (CLASS 588)
The elements of the periodic table that consist of He, Ar, Kr, Xe, and Rn which have no valency and combine only with great difficulty, if at all, with other elements.

NOBLE METAL* (CLASS 075)
A metal of the group Ruthenium (Ru), Rhodium (Rd), Palladium (Pd), Osmium (Os), Iridium (Ir), Platinum (Pt), Silver (Ag), and Gold (Au).

NOBLE METAL* (CLASS 420)
A metal of the group Ruthenium, Rhodium, Palladium, Osmium, Iridium, Platinum, Gold and Silver.

NOBLE METALS (CLASS 428)
Those metals not readily oxidized, i.e., silver, gold, platinum, polladium, mercury, iridium, rhodium, ruthenium, osmium. (Nonstructural or Composition)

NOISE (CLASS 704)
Any sound which is undesirable and interferes with one'S hearing or with a system'S analysis of desired sound.

NOISE (CLASS 725)
In data transmissions, generally, an undesired disturbance within the useful frequency band. Note : undesired disturbances within the useful frequency band produced by other services may be called interference. In broadband networks, an unwanted signal in a communications system. White noise (or random noise) is random energy (e.g., shot noise and thermal noise) that has a uniform distribution of energy across the bandpass. The analogy for white noise is white light. Johnson noise (thermal) is the noise generated by electron movement (current through a resistor) above absolute zero. The noise level is proportional to temperature. Shot noise is the type of unrandom noise generated when current flows across an abrupt junction. Shot noise is characteristic of semiconductor devices.

NON-METAL (CLASS 117)
The twenty-one elements: hydrogen, boron, carbon, silicon, nitrogen, phosphorus, oxygen, sulfur, selenium, tellurium, fluorine, chlorine, bromine, iodine, astatine, helium, neon, argon, krypton, xenon, and radon.

NON-METALS (CLASS 257)
H, B, C, Si, N, P, O, S, Se, Te, noble gases, halogens.

NON-SEMICONDUCTOR METAL (CLASS 117)
A metal* other than which has a disclosed semiconductor property or intended use. For example, a single-crystal* of germanium or indium antimonide would be inferred to be a semiconductor even though composed of a metal* because of its known semiconductor property.

NON-WORKING CHAMBER (CLASS 091)
A chamber of the motor which expands and contracts incident to movement of the working member, and which is neither expanded nor contracted to do work by fluid supplied to or evacuated from said chamber.

NONCOMBUSTIBLE FLUID (CLASS 110)
A gas or liquid which itself does not burn but which is capable of supporting or promoting combustion (i.e., air, steam, or water).

NONDOPANT (CLASS 438)
An impurity added from an external source which does not modify the electrical properties of a semiconductor.

NONIONIC BONDING (CLASS 514)
As used in regard to bonding or attachment of specified moieties denotes the absence of ionic bonding between the moieties. If the moieties are attached directly, the bonds between them must be covalent or coordinate. If the moieties are attached indirectly, each atom of the connecting chain must be attached by covalent or coordinate bonding to another atom of the connecting chain or to one of the moieties. However, the connecting chain may have substituents thereon which include ionic bonding. Some examples will be given of compounds which could be classified in a subclass having the following titles: "Oxygen attached indirectly to the six-membered hetero ring by nonionic bonding". Two typical compounds which would be classified in such a subclass are: > The following three compounds would also be classified in such a subclass but they are not typical. > The three atypical examples are considered to meet the title since there is a chain of atoms between the hetero ring and the oxygen in which each atom is connected to the hetero ring, the oxygen, or another atom of the chain by nonionic bonding. The ionic bonding between the ring nitrogen and the oxygen in the two betaine inner salts is additional and does not keep the betaines out of such a subclass. However, a structure, such as > > is excluded since no oxygen is attached to the six-membered hetero ring by nonionic bonding. The oxygen of an N—oxide, for example, > is considered attached to the ring by nonionic bonding (coordinated bonding).

NONIONIC BONDING (CLASS 532)
As used in regard to bonding or attachment of specified moieties denotes the absence of ionic bonding between the moieties. If the moieties are attached directly, the bonds between them must be covalent or coordinate. If the moities are attached indirectly, each atom of the connecting chain must be attached by covalent or coordinate bonding to another atom of the connecting chain or to one of the moieties. However, the connecting chain may have substituents thereon which include ionic bonding. Some examples will be given of compounds which could be classified in a subclass having the following title: "Oxygen attached indirectly to the six-membered hetero ring by nonionic bonding". Two typical compounds which would be classified in such a subclass are shown in Figure 5. Figure 5> The three compounds shown in Figure 6 would also be classified in such a subclass but they are not typical. The three atypical examples in Figure 6 are considered to meet the title since there is a chain of atoms between the hetero ring and the oxygen in which each atom is connected to the hetero ring, the oxygen, or another atom of the chain by nonionic bonding. The ionic bonding between the ring nitrogen and the oxygen in the two betaine inner salts is additional and does not keep the betaines out of such a subclass. Figure 6> However, a structure such as that shown in Figure 7 is excluded since no oxygen is attached indirectly (or directly) to the six-membered hetero ring by nonionic bonding. Figure 7> The oxygen of an N-oxide, as shown in Figure 8, is considered attached to the ring by nonionic bonding (coordinate bonding). Figure 8>

NONIONIC COMPOUND (CLASS 510)
Denotes an organic compound devoid of cationic or anionic substituents and thus lacking any ionic charge at a neutral pH (i.e., pH=7).

NONLINEAR IMPEDANCE OR DEVICE (CLASS 330)
An impedance or device, which may be reactive or resistive or a combination of both and having the characteristic that for changes in voltage or current, the relationship of the voltage drop across the impedance or device, or the voltage applied across the impedance or device to the current flowing through it, is nonlinear.

NONMAGNETIC MOTOR (CLASS 318)
A motor having means other than a magnetic field producing means for producing a mechanical force. Example of nonmagnetic motors are piezo-electric crystals, thermo-electric motors.

NONMETAL* (CLASS 075)
An element of the group Hydrogen (H), Boron (B), Carbon (C), Silicon (Si), Nitrogen (N), Phosphorus(P), Oxygen (O), Sulfur (S), Selenium (Se), Tellurium (Te), Fluorine (F), Chlorine (Cl), Bromine (Br), Iodine (I), Astatine (At), Helium (He), Neon (Ne), Argon (Ar), Krypton (Kr), Xenon (Xe), and Radon (Rd). (1) Note. For subclasses 228+ Silicon is considered to be a metal.

NONMETAL* (CLASS 420)
An element of the group, Hydrogen, Boron, Carbon, Silicon, Nitrogen, Phosphorus, Oxygen, Sulfur, Selenium, Tellurium, Fluorine, Chlorine, Bromine, Iodine, Astatine, Helium, Neon, Argon, Krypton, Xenon and Radon.

NONMETALLIC ELEMENTS (CLASS 423)
The electronegative elements on the right of the periodic system, which generally exist in several stages of oxidation and whose oxides form acids. See main class definition for list of nonmetals for this class.

NONMETALS (CLASS 520)
Denotes boron, oxygen, carbon, selenium, tellurium, nitrogen, sulfur, phosphorous, silicon, hydrogen, fluorine, chlorine, bromine, iodine, astatine, helium, neon, argon, krypton, xenon, and radon.

NONOXO-CARBONYLIC (CLASS 260)
Denotes the presence of C=O in combination other than as found in ketone and aldehydes and is generic, for example, to carbonyl, thus: >

NONTHICKNESS SURFACE (CLASS 112)
The surface of a web, sheet, layer, or component on which both its length and width may be measured. See Figure 5. >

NONTHICKNESS SURFACE (CLASS 428)
The surface of a web, sheet, layer or component on which both its length and width may be measured. See Figure 3. (Structural) >

NONWORKING CHAMBER (CLASS 092)
Any space within a part of an expansible chamber device which is not designed to receive working fluid for acting upon the working member, or for being acted upon by the working member.

NORMAL PEPTIDE LINK (CLASS 930)
Exists between an alpha-amino group of an amino acid and the carboxyl group - in position 1 - of another alpha amino acid.

NORMAL WHEEL-BASE (CLASS 180)
Means the arrangement of the four wheels of a vehicle so that straight lines joining the points of contact of the wheels with the road form approximately a rectangle when the steering wheels are in the straight-away position.

NORMALIZING (CLASS 148)
A process of heating the metal above it's critical temperature range and cooling in air thereby establishing a fine uniform grain size and improving microstructural uniformity.

NOTCHING (CLASS 083)
The cutting of a discrete product from a workpiece through the thickness of the workpiece with the line of cut starting at an edge of the workpiece and returning to the same edge. The edge of the workpiece may be either an exterior edge or an interior edge. A cut which extends solely along a single straight line is not considered to be a notching cut.

NOTCHING (CLASS 234)
The cutting of a discrete product from a workpiece through the thickness of the workpiece with the line of cut starting at an edge of the workpiece and returning to the same edge.

novolak (CLASS 438)
Thermoplastic phenol-formaldehyde used as photoresist

NOWEL (CLASS 164)
See Drag.

NPN (CLASS 438)
(bipolar transistor)

NPN TRANSISTOR (CLASS 257)
A transistor in which the base is made of p-type material and both source and drain are made of n-type semiconductor material.

NPN TRANSISTOR (CLASS 438)
A bipolar transistor with n-type emitter and collector regions separated by a p-type base.

NRD (CLASS 438)
nitridation retarded diffusion

NRM (CLASS 523)
Nonreactant material (as discussed in this class definition)

NSAG (CLASS 438)
nonself-aligned gate

NTD (CLASS 438)
neutron transmutation doping

NUCLEAR CARBON (CLASS 260)
Denotes a carbon which is a ring carbon of a closed chain.

NUCLEAR FUEL (CLASS 376)
(a) Light elements such as hydrogen, deuterium tritium, lithium, boron beryllium, etc., which are capable of fusing or combining to form a nucleus of higher mass number, (b) fissionable fissile, or special nuclear material such as U233, U235, or uranium enriched with either of these Pu239, etc., capable of sustaining a chain reaction.

NUCLEAR REACTION (CLASS 376)
For the purpose of this class, a change in the composition or physical characteristics of an atomic nucleus produced (a) directly or indirectly, by its irradiation or bombardment by high energy alpha particles, protons, deuterons, slow or fast neutrons or high energy radiations (gamma rays) or (b) by fusing or combining nuclei of low atomic number to produce a nucleus of higher mass number. See also class definition, section I, and (1) Note.

NUCLEAR REACTOR (CLASS 376)
For the purpose of this class, a structure inside which an induced nuclear reaction is confined, manipulated, or controlled. A nuclear fission reactor is a structure in which a fission chain reaction is a fissionable material can be maintained and controlled. Besides the fuel, it generally contains control apparatus, moderator, coolant, etc., and is often surrounded by a biological shield. A nuclear fusion reactor is a structure in which a fusion reaction in a nuclear fuel capable of fusing is controlled or manipulated. Although it is implied that the rate of such reactions increases as the relative velocities of such particles at the time of collision, nothing is implied about the means by which such precollision velocities are attained. The same reaction may and usually does produce one or more other particles such as neutrons or protons, in accordance with well-known reactions.

NUCLEIC ACID (CLASS 435)
A polynucleotide or more than two nucleotides.

NUCLEIC ACID (CLASS 977)
Compounds containing three components: (1) a nitrogenous base; (2) a five-carbon sugar; and (3) phosphoric acid; forms include mononucleotides, oligonucleotides and polynucleotides. The most common forms are DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) and RNA (ribonucleic acid), which predominantly occur in nature in polynucleotide form that are polymers of mononucleotides.

NUMERICAL DIGITS (CLASS 708)
Symbols that represent a specific quantity or amount of units.

NUTRIENT (CLASS 117)
The source material from which the single-crystal* deposits or grows. See also precursor*.

NVRAM (CLASS 438)
nonvolatile RAM

| A | B | C-CL | CM-CZ | D-DIM | DIM-DZ | E | F | G | H | I | J-K | L | M-MET | MET-MZ | N | O | P-PHA | PHE-PON | POR-PZ | Q | R | S-SEPA | SEPO-SMT | SN-STEM | STEP-SZ | T-TOG | TON-TZ | U | V | W | X-Z |

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