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USPTO Terms of Art — F

Glossary of USPTO Terms of Art

| A | B | C-CL | CM-CZ | D-DIM | DIM-DZ | E | F | G | H | I | J-K | L | M-MET | MET-MZ | N | O | P-PHA | PHE-PON | POR-PZ | Q | R | S-SEPA | SEPO-SMT | SN-STEM | STEP-SZ | T-TOG | TON-TZ | U | V | W | X-Z |

FABRIC (CLASS 428)
A web*, sheet* or film disclosed as used in the manufacture of household furnishings (e.g., draperies, upholstery, etc) shoes, etc., roofing, clothing, tires, etc. and is claimed as a textile*, cloth* or fabric. See Class 442, class definition. (Structural)

FACE BONDED (CLASS 257)
A chip mounting technique wherein semiconductor chips are provided with small mounting pads, turned face down, and bonded directly to conductors on a substrate.

FACE BONDED (CLASS 438)
A chip mounting technique wherein semiconductor chips are provided with small mounting pads, turned face down, and bonded directly to conductors on a substrate.

FACER OR FACING (SEE MODULE) (CLASS 052)
An element or structure which (1) forms an exposed surface section of a barrier or (2) the panel held by a frame, a framing element or an elongated sustainer, e.g., the movable closure part of a door or window. In the latter respect it differs from a module in that it is not used in repetition to form an extended surface.

FAILURE (CLASS 712)
Manifestation of an error as a nonperformance of an expected system service as required by the initial specifications.

FAILURE (CLASS 713)
Manifestation of an error as a nonperformance of an expected system service as required by the initial specifications.

FAMOS (CLASS 438)
floating-gate avalanche-injection MOS

FANNED LEADS (CLASS 257)
Leads placed through a package wall at closer intervals than normal and radiated (fanned) out on the exterior of the package until a desired center-to-center lead spacing is achieved.

FAR FIELD (CLASS 342)
The space beyond the near field of an antenna in which radiation is essentially confined to a fixed pattern falls off inversely with the square of the distance.

FASIC (CLASS 438)
folded bit-line adaptive sidewall isol. capacitor cell

FAST (FISSION) REACTOR (CLASS 376)
A nuclear reactor in which most of the fissions are caused by neutrons moving with substantially the high speeds they possess at the time of their birth in fission. Such reactors contain little or no moderator.

FAST NEUTRONS (CLASS 376)
See Thermal Neutrons.

FASTENER (CLASS 403)
A retainer which serves to hold the members or one or more components against separation.

FAT, FATTY OIL (CLASS 204)
A glyceride of a higher fatty acid, including naturally occurring mixtures thereof.

FATTY ACID (CLASS 514)
Denotes an aliphatic monocarboxylic acid having an unbroken chain of at least seven carbon atoms bonded to the carboxyl group.

FATTY ACID (CLASS 520)
Denotes an aliphatic monocarboxylic acid having an unbroken chain of at least seven acyclic carbon atoms bonded to the carboxyl group. Fatty acid glycerol ester denotes a mono-, di-, or tri-ester of a fatty acid with glycerol. The so-called drying or semidrying oils are naturally occurring fatty acid glycerol esters (i.e., glycerides). The drying or semidrying property relates to the degree of ethylenic unsaturation. Naturally occurring fatty acid glycerides (i.e., fats and fatty oils) include but are not limited to linseed oil, perilla oil, olive oil, oititica oil, soybean oil, fish oil, castor oil, tallow, and other natural glycerides: alfalfa, apricot kernel, beechnut, bontio, Brazil nut, candlenut, cedar nut, chaulmoogra, cherry kernel, coconut, corn, cottonseed, croton seed, grapefruit seed, grapeseed, hempseed, isano, ivory wood seed, jute seed, mustard seed, oat, orange seed, plum kernel, poppyseed, poyok, rice, rye, safflower, sesame, stillingia, sunflower, teaseed, thistle seed, tobacco seed, tomato seed, walnut, wheat, wild rose seed. Naturally occurring fats and fatty oils are treated in this Class 520 Series as fatty acid glycerol esters. A fatty acid derived from naturally occurring glyceride denotes the carboxylic acids normally obtained by saponification of the naturally occurring glycerides (i.e., oleic, linoleic, linolenic, licanic, eleostearic, ricinoleic, arachidic, stearic, palmitic, lauric, erucic, palmitoleic, capric, caprylic, myristic and clupanodonic acids). Carboxylic acids specifically enumerated above will be treated as fatty acids derived from naturally occurring glycerides only where there is specific disclosure that the acid is derived from a naturally occurring glyceride source. Tall oil denotes the mixture of fatty acids, rosin, and unsaponifiable material obtained by treatment of Kraft (or sulfite) process black liquor. In this Class 520 Series, tall oil is usually treated as if it were a mixture of fatty acids derived from naturally occurring glycerides unless otherwise specifically stated; see appropriate subclass definitions for exceptions. Fatty acid derived from tall oil denotes the fatty acid portion of tall oil In this series, derivatives or modifications of the fatty acid glycerol ester, fatty acid derived from a naturally occurring glyceride, tall oil, or fatty acids derived from tall oil are excluded, except as specifically provided for in the following list: salts of the fatty acid moiety, blown oils, refined oils and acids, stand oils, boiled oils, bodied oils, hydrogenated oils or acids, dehydrogenated oils or acids, dehydrated castor oil or dehydrated castor oil fatty acids. Synthetically produced fatty acids having the same structure as fatty acids derived from naturally occurring glycerides are included herein. Dimerized or trimerized or "polymeric" fatty acids are excluded as "fatty acids" for purposes of this Class 520 Series; similarly, adducts of fatty acids or fatty acid glycerol esters with alpha, beta ethylenically unsaturated carboxylic acids are excluded as "fatty acids".

FATTY STILL RESIDUES (CLASS 204)
Bottoms, tars, or pitches resulting from the distillation of fats, fatty oils, and ester-type waxes, (e.g., stearine pitch, etc.).

FAULT (CLASS 712)
A flaw in a functional unit (hardware or software).

FAULT (CLASS 713)
A flaw in a functional unit (hardware or software).

FAULT (CLASS 714)
A flaw in a functional unit (hardware or software).

FCT (CLASS 438)
field controlled thyristor

FEATURE (CLASS 707)
A character, word or phrase that is part of a search query used in search ranking.

FEC (CLASS 438)
floating electrode capacitor

FED (CLASS 438)
field emission device

FEED (CLASS 053)
Feed or delivery, as distinct from infeed, is transfer, conveyance, movement or translation of assembly components to or from what is established as a work position; at which position further motion of the components with respect to each other - generally a straight line movement along the major axis of either or both components - is called infeed. Thus, for example, motion of a closure element from a hopper or magazine to a superimposed position over the aperture of a receptacle is referred to as feed or delivery while the final juxtapositioning of the closure and receptacles previously aligned and oriented is considered infeed.

FEED (CLASS 208)
The mineral oil which is subjected to treating processes provided for in this class, which in most cases, is a mixture of hydrocarbons.

FEED (CLASS 210)
The liquid to be treated, prior to processing.

FEED (CLASS 226)
(v) To move material to an operation*. (n) The act of moving material to an operation*.

FEED (of pattern, card, web, etc.) (CLASS 234)
The progressive advancement of an object through a tool field and/or a field of pattern-sensers*, as distinguished from the mere presentation of an object to a machine.

FEED-ROLL (CLASS 226)
A roll* which is disclosed as driven so as to impart motion to the material whereby the material is moved to an operation.

FEED-ROLLER (CLASS 400)
A rotatable element having a cylindrical or cylindroidal periphery that contacts a surface of a sheet or web of record-medium* material or transfer-medium* material and enables or causes movement of the sheet or web. Usually a feed-roller cooperates with a second element and the sheet or web lies between the feed-roller and the second element, the opposite surfaces of the sheet or web being closely adjacent to the corresponding surfaces of the feed-roller and the second element and in nonsliding contact therewith. When the second element is a platen* the feed-roller serves as a "pressure roller" to urge the sheet or web toward the platen, and the platen is rotated to cause feed movement of the sheet or web. When the second element is another feed-roller either or both of the feed-rollers may be driven for rotation, the rollers being rotated in opposite rotational directions to cause feed movement, and the two feed-rollers cooperate to form a feed-roller couple.

FEEDBACK (CLASS 388)
The return of energy from the output of a motor to the input for the purpose of controlling the input so as to achieve or maintain a desired output condition.

FEEDER (CLASS 226)
(n) A device which moves material to an operation*. (Compare with Dispenser).

FEEDER (CLASS 401)
Means to guide fluent coating material from a reservoir to or through a coating tool or to a work surface.

FEEDER (CLASS 460)
The component of a grain thresher that transports the crop from the cutter or crop pickup apparatus to the threshing system. Apparatuses prior to approximately 1950 included bundle handling and a band cutter.

FEEDING (CLASS 271)
Refers to the "means for moving individual sheet from a stack" and involves use of a "separator or a conveyor."

FEMALE MOLD (CLASS 425)
A receptacle having structure for imparting a desired configuration to a removable product formed therein from stock material.

FERMENT (CLASS 426)
Any enzyme or any living organism that is capable of causing or modifying a fermentation.

FERMENTATE (CLASS 424)
Denotes the final chemical compound, or compounds, that are produced by a fermentation process and includes compounds which are of known as well as unknown structure.

FERMENTATION (CLASS 435)
The use of a microorganism or enzyme to carry a molecular transformation.

FERMI-DIRAC STATISTICS (CLASS 977)
Statistical distribution of fermionic particles, such as electrons between energy states, etc.

FERRIMAGNETISM (CLASS 428)
Ferrimagnetic materials exhibit exchange interaction between neighboring atoms leading to adjacent moments; however, the magnetic moments are unequal and opposite in direction. The magnetic properties of ferrimagnetic materials are strongly temperature dependent and are characterized by their Curie temperature. Examples of ferrimagnetic materials are rare earth-transition metal amorphous alloys, such as GdFeCo, TbFeCo, and select granular transition-metal alloys.

FERRITE SPINELS (CLASS 117)
MFe2O4, where M = divalent metal (or mixtures thereof) and having the cubic lattice structure.

FERROMAGNETISM (CLASS 428)
Ferromagnetic materials exhibit exchange interaction between neighboring atoms leading to adjacent moments. Ferromagnetism is temperature dependent and field strength dependent. Typical ferromagnetic materials include transition metals such as Fe, Ni, and Co and their alloys.

FERTILE MATERIAL (CLASS 376)
An element (isotope) capable of being readily transformed or converted into a fissionable substance by capture of a neutron, examples include, U238 and Th232.

FET (CLASS 117)
Field Effect Transistor.

FET (CLASS 257)
Acronym for field effect transistor.

FET (CLASS 438)
field effect transistor

FIB (CLASS 438)
focused ion beam

FIBER (CLASS 065)
See Subclass References to the Current Class, above, for a subclass reference to the term "fiber."

FIBER (CLASS 112)
A relatively short, slender, flexible element of macroscopic size and finite length and having a width and thickness of the same order magnitude. A fiber is generally of staple length to facilitate being spun, twisted, or otherwise secured together into a composite strand but may be of shorter length requiring bonding, felting, or matting to form a strand or layer. It may be of animal (e.g., wool, rabbit hair); vegetable (e.g., cotton, jute, hemp); or mineral (e.g., asbestos, glass, metal) origin; and may be either natural, modified, or synthetic.

FIBER (CLASS 264)
A discrete particle, generally bulk or mass handled because of its small size, wherein the particle has a length considerably greater than its breadth or cross-sectional diameter.

FIBER (CLASS 428)
A relatively short, slender, flexible element of macroscopic size and finite length and having a width and thickness of the same order of magnitude. A fiber is generally of staple length to facilitate its being spun, twisted or otherwise secured together into a composite strand but may be of shorter length requiring bonding, felting or matting to form a strand or layer. It may be of animal (e.g., wool, rabbit hair), vegetable (e.g., cotton, jute, hemp), or mineral (e.g., asbestos, glass, metal) origin and may be either natural, modified or synthetic. See also Filament. (Structural)

FIBER (CLASS 501)
A slender, elongated structure of relatively small, uniform diameter having a much greater length, which may have a relatively short finite length or an indeterminate length.

FIBER (OPTICAL CABLE) (CLASS 725)
Fiber: any filament or fiber, made of dielectric materials, that guides light, whether or not it is used to transmit signals. Optical cable: a fiber, multiple fibers, or fiber bundle in a structure fabricated to meet optical, mechanical, and environmental specifications which is used for the transmission of signals.

FIDUCIAL (CLASS 356)
A reference direction formed as by a light ray, level, compass, or scale from which another direction is measured or compared.

FIELD EFFECT TRANSISTOR (CLASS 257)
A unipolar transistor in which current carriers are injected at a source terminal and pass to a drain terminal through a channel of semiconductor material whose conductivity depends largely on an electric field applied to the semiconductor from a control electrode. There are two main types of FET, a junction FET and an insulated-gate FET. In the junction FET, the gate is isolated from the channel by a pn junction. In an insulated-gate FET, the gate is isolated from the channel by an insulating layer, so that the gate and channel form a capacitor with the insulating layer as the capacitor dielectric.

FIELD EFFECT TRANSISTOR (FET) (CLASS 438)
A unipolar transistor in which current carriers are injected at a source terminal and pass to a drain terminal through a channel of semiconductor material whose conductivity depends largely on an electric field applied to the semiconductor from a control electrode. There are two main types of FETs, a junction FET and an insulated-gate FET. In the junction FET, the gate is isolated from the channel by a pn-junction. In an insulated-gate FET, the gate is isolated from the channel by an insulating layer so that the gate and channel form a capacitor with the insulating layer as the capacitor dielectric.

FIELD OXIDE (CLASS 257)
A thin (on a macroscopic scale) film made up of an oxide of a material which overlies a device substrate to reduce parasitic capacitive coupling between conductors overlying the oxide and the substrate or devices below the oxide layer (e.g., in the substrate).

FIELD OXIDE (CLASS 438)
A thin (on a macroscopic scale) film made of an oxide of a material which overlies a device substrate to reduce parasitic capacitive coupling between conductors overlying the oxide and the substrate or devices below the oxide layer (e.g., in the substrate). See bird'S beak.

FIELD WINDING (CLASS 388)
A coil of insulated wire which produces a magnetic field in the space occupied by the motor armature.

FILAMENT (CLASS 065)
See Subclass References to the Current Class, above, for a subclass reference to the term "filament."

FILAMENT (CLASS 313)
A wire, ribbon or rod conducting member. It may be made of metal or nonmetal. In this class filaments, per se, are classified in subclasses 341+ irrespective of whether the filament is to be used in a lamp or discharge device, and irrespective of whether the filament is to be heated by passing a current through the filament (directly heated cathode) or is to be heated by the discharge in a discharge device (see thermionic cathode).

FILAMENT (CLASS 330)
A wire, ribbon, or rod conductive member.

FILAMENT (CLASS 373)
A slender thread of material.

FILAMENT (CLASS 428)
A fine threadlike body or structure whose width and thickness are of the same order of magnitude. See also fiber. (Structural)

FILE (CLASS 707)
A named collection of data.

FILLER (CLASS 228)
A metallic material to be applied to the work in order to join meeting face* together and become an integral part of the product*.

FILLING (CLASS 053)
The step of placing a contents within a cover. It is not necessary that the contents occupy the entire space encased; i.e., the cover may be only partially filled by a filling operation.

FILLING HEAD (CLASS 141)
The portion of a dispenser or source part of the system which comprises the flow outlet or flow confining terminus and other flow confining structure which may be in advance (up-stream) of it back to the supply.

FILM STRIP (CLASS 353)
An indeterminate length of film having a plurality of images thereon.

FILM STRIP (CLASS 355)
An indeterminate length of film having either a plurality of images thereon or enough space for a plurality of images.

FILTER (CLASS 095)
An article or mass of material made of closely spaced or intimately arranged intermeshed or unconnected fibers, elements, strands, or particles that collectively act as a barrier to physically retain at least one constituent of a fluid mixture on its surfaces or in the spaces between the fibers, elements, strands, or particles while permitting passage of the remaining constituents. A filter has no "chemical" affinity for a constituent of a fluid mixture. The retention of the constituent by the filter depends upon a mechanical entrapment of solid or liquid particles because of their relatively large size compared with the interstices or spaces between individual fibers, elements, strands, or particles. The retained particles can be removed by brushing, wiping, shaking, or similar mechanical action.

FILTER (CLASS 096)
An article or mass of material made of closely spaced or intimately arranged intermeshed or unconnected fibers, elements, strands, or particles that collectively act as a barrier to physically retain at least one constituent of a fluid mixture on its surfaces or in the spaces between the fibers, elements, strands, or particles while permitting passage of the remaining constituents. A filter has no "chemical" affinity for a constituent of a fluid mixture. The retention of the constituent by the filter depends upon a mechanical entrapment of solid or liquid particles because of their relatively large size compared with the interstices or spaces between individual fibers, elements, strands, or particles. The retained particles can be removed by brushing, wiping, shaking, or similar mechanical action.

FILTER (CLASS 210)
Method of and apparatus for removing solid particles from a liquid by passing the same through a medium with openings smaller than the particles. Microfiltration is filtration down to coolidal and polymeric molecular size. Ultrafiltration and hyperfiltration are more likely transport or diffusion across a membrane process but are called filtration down to molecular and ionic size. See subclasses 650 and 652.

FILTER (CLASS 330)
A frequency selective means.

FILTER (CLASS 362)
A type of transparent or translucent selected wavelength modifier which absorbs light of at least one wavelength (i.e., color) and transmits light of another wavelength.

FILTER (CLASS 707)
A technique or program for removing unrequested or specifically identified data from results thereby controlling data output.

FILTER ELEMENT (CLASS 210)
Filter medium combined with supporting structure or having a specified shape.

FILTER MEDIUM (CLASS 210)
Solid separating material or member for separating a constituent from the prefilt due to openings between material particles or in the member.

FILTRATE (CLASS 210)
Liquid which has been clarified by passing it through a filter medium.

FILTRATION (CLASS 210)
The separation of solids from a liquid or a liquid from liquids by a solid separating medium due to openings in the medium or between discrete particles.

FINAL CONTROL DEVICE (CLASS 323)
That element or group of elements which ultimately produces the controlled output of a system. This excludes any condition sensors or control signal processing circuitry.

FINING (CLASS 065)
See Subclass References to the Current Class, above, for a subclass reference to the term "fining."

FINISHING (CLASS 404)
Treatment or working of material to either (1) modify the internal orientation of constituents of a mass of material (usually a mixture of road aggregate) or (2) provide a desired surface characteristic for such massed material. The terms "finishing" has been loosely used in patent literature to cover many different processes and devices so long as the desired result is achieved. For this reason the term has not been used in subclass titles.

FIPOS (CLASS 438)
full isolation by porous oxidized silicon

FIRE TUBES (CLASS 122)
Include both small and large tubes through which the products of combustion pass unless the term "flue" is used with them, in which case "fire tubes" would refer to the small tubes, and "flues" to the large tubes for the products of combustion.

FIRE-POLISHING (CLASS 065)
Heating of the outer surface of hard glass to a temperature where that surface only melts and surface tension causes smoothing thereof, the heating usually being by fire or flame contact of the glass surface.

FISSILE MATERIAL (CLASS 376)
See Fissionable Material.

FISSION (CLASS 376)
The splitting of a heavy nucleus into two (or, very rarely, more) fragments (fission products) of more or less equal mass accompanied by the emission of neutrons and the release of energy. It can be spontaneous or it can be caused by the impact or a neutron, a fast charged particle or a photon. See Fissionable Material. Cf. Spallation.

FISSIONABLE MATERIAL (CLASS 376)
Any element or isotope the nucleus of which can be caused by nuclear bombardment to undergo nuclear fission and to produce a fission chain reaction U233, U235, and Pu239, are examples. Unless a patent refers to a distinction, "fissionable" and "fissile" are considered synonymous for the purpose of this class.

FLACCID (CLASS 403)
Structure, which when subjected to a distortion force less than or equal to earth's gravitational force, is incapable (in at least one of its orientations) of maintaining its previous formational shape or being self supporting over any appreciable dimension.

FLACCID* (CLASS 024)
Structure which, when subjected to a distortion force less than or equal to earth's gravitational force, is incapable (in at least one of its orientations) of maintaining its previous formational shape or being self-supporting over any appreciable dimension.

FLAIL (CLASS 460)
An implement consisting of a free-swinging stick tied to the end of another stick or a plurality of swinging knives or blades which are mounted on a rotating shaft, used to thresh grains.

FLAKE (CLASS 428)
A small thin mass having a width or length greater than its thickness. The term flake is considered to denote structure and is classified accordingly. (Structural)

FLAME HOLDER (CLASS 431)
Generic term for the part of a combustion device confining the flame or supporting the base of a flame. It includes burner heads, the flame supporting portion of wicks, the pots of pot type burners, etc.

FLARE (CLASS 425)
Reshaping a tubular portion by spreading a portion outwardly.

FLASH (CLASS 164)
A thin film of metal formed on a casting where the metal has flowed between mating parts of the mold.

FLASH BACK (CLASS 431)
The spread of flame from a combustion area into a feed passage of a burner head.

FLASH DEVICE (CLASS 396)
A flash device is a means to produce one or more bursts of light to provide scene illumination for exposure.

FLASH VAPORIZATION (CLASS 203)
The process in which the distilland is heated under pressure high enough to prevent ebullition (usually above atmospheric pressure) and the heated distilland is then introduced into a zone of lesser pressure resulting in the volatilization of at least a position of the distilland.

FLASHING (CLASS 052)
Thin sheet of material covering or extending into a joint to deflect liquid from the joint.

FLASHING (CLASS 065)
Applying a thin layer of opaque or colored glass to the surface of clear glass, or vice versa.

FLASK (CLASS 164)
A box, usually of metal or wood, used to hold sand in which a mold is formed.

FLAT PACK (CLASS 257)
An integrated circuit package with leads extending from it in the same plane as that of the package. It has a low profile.

FLEXIBLE TRACK (CLASS 305)
An annular band made either of a single piece of flexible material or of a plurality of individual treads or sections movably connected together.

FLINT (CLASS 431)
A body of material that produces igniting sparks when struck. It is generally made of an alloy of iron and cerium.

FLIP-CHIP (CLASS 257)
A term which describes the situation wherein a semiconductor device which has all terminations on one side thereof in the form of bump contacts, has a passivated surface and has been flipped over and attached to a matching substrate.

FLIP-CHIP (CLASS 438)
A term which describes the situation wherein a semiconductor device which has all terminations on one side thereof in the form of bump contacts, has a passivated surface, and has been flipped over and attached to a matching substrate.

FLOATERS (CLASS 065)
Refractory blocks floating on molten glass in a tank furnace to prevent gall or scum from entering the working end.

FLOATING DIFFUSION (CLASS 257)
A region of a semiconductor device in which impurity atoms have been doped and which is electrically floating, that is, has no direct electrical connection.

FLOATING DIFFUSION (CLASS 438)
A region of a semiconductor device in which impurity atoms have been doped and which is electrically floating, that is, has no direct electrical connection.

FLOATING GATE (CLASS 257)
A gate electrode that is electrically floating, that is, has no direct electrical connection.

FLOATING GATE (CLASS 438)
A gate electrode that is electrically floating, that is, has no direct electrical connection.

FLOC (CLASS 210)
Flocculated clumps of suspended or dispersed small particles resulting from accretion and used as sites for further accretion of suspended matter. See subclass 715.

FLOCCULATION (CLASS 210)
A clumping together of finely divided particles of material dispersed in a liquid to a state where filtration or settling of the material is possible. See subclasses 702+.

FLOTATION (CLASS 423)
A process for the concentration of selective separation of components of ores by grinding the ores with a frothing agent, floating them on water and agitating the mixture with compressed air, causing the wet gangue (earthy portion of the ore) to settle and permitting the concentrated ore to be skimmed off.

FLOTOX (CLASS 438)
floating gate tunnel oxide

FLOW REGULATOR (CLASS 239)
Means for altering or adjusting the quantity of effluent.

FLOW-REGULATOR (CLASS 401)
Means (e.g., valve), including a part which is movable, to open, close, or restrict a passage for coating material or for gas, and thus to control movement of coating material in the implement. A removable closure, however, will not be considered to be a flow-regulator.

FLUENT MATERIAL (CLASS 249)
Fluent material is (1) any material, which at the normal temperature range of an apparatus, lacks ability to retain a shape but instead readily conforms in shape to the configuration of a surface upon or within which it is placed or (2) any material which is handled as a mass of no predetermined shape and in the normal operation of a shaping device takes a form which in no way corresponds in general structure or dimensions to that of the original mass.

FLUENT MATERIAL (CLASS 250)
A liquid, gas or mass of granular solid material that does not of itself maintain its own spatial form but flows. Whether or not a granular material should be considered fluent or not is determined in each case by how it is handled. Generally if the handling means has walls to hold up the material, the material is fluent. Thus, for example, coal is necessarily fluent in a pail or bin but not necessarily fluent in a pile.

FLUENT MATERIAL (CLASS 425)
A material which lacks ability to retain a shape at working temperatures, but instead readily conforms in shape to the configuration of a surface upon or within which it is placed.

FLUID (CLASS 166)
A material capable of flowing. A naturally occurring fluid in the earth. It includes gases, liquids, plastics, and solids which can be handled in the manner of a liquid.

FLUID (CLASS 210)
Material that flows, generally gas or liquid but sometimes including mixtures of these with particulate solids such as slurry, sludge, gels, etc. Some materials are thixatropic, i.e., fluid when agitated but jellylike when at rest. Pumpable sludge is considered a liquid for treatment in this class.

FLUID (CLASS 239)
Includes any material which is handled like a fluid (i.e., may be caused to flow) and meets the definition of those materials accepted by this class in the class definition.

FLUID (CLASS 347)
The flowable substance which is projected from the ejector* mechanism or which is used to enhance the transport or generation of charged particles.

FLUID CONVEYOR INLET (CLASS 406)
The point at which the load is first guided or supported and is acted upon by the fluid current. The inlet must also be subsequent to any structure (e.g., terminal, receptacle) for statically supporting the load at the entrance to the conveyor.

FLUID CONVEYOR OUTLET (CLASS 406)
The point at which the load is either no longer guided or supported, or is no longer acted upon by the fluid current. The outlet must also be prior to any structure (e.g., terminal, receptacle) for statically supporting the load at the exit from the conveyor.

FLUID CURRENT CONVEYOR (CLASS 406)
Structure which guides or supports the load from the fluid conveyor inlet* to the fluid conveyor outlet* and wherein the fluid current acts upon the load from the inlet* to the outlet*.

FLUID MIXTURE (CLASS 095)
The phrase "fluid mixture" is used throughout the definitions to mean (a) a gas and solid or liquid particles entrained therein, (b) a liquid and gas entrained therein, or (c) a plurality of gases.

FLUID MIXTURE (CLASS 096)
The phrase "fluid mixture" is used throughout the definitions to mean (a) a gas and solid or liquid particles entrained therein, (b) a liquid and gas entrained therein, or (c) a plurality of gases.

FLUID(S) (CLASS 277)
A liquid, gas, or particulate matter (e.g., dust, etc.) suspended in a liquid or gas.

FLUIDIZED BED (CLASS 075)
A bed of solid particles with gas flowing upward through the particles with sufficient velocity to keep the particles suspended and in motion in the gas without blowing them bodily out of the top of the bed. The suspended particles act much like a fluid.

FLUIDIZED BED (CLASS 423)
A mass of solid particles maintained in a state of constant turbulent motion in a gas stream, resulting in a suspension of finely divided particles in a stream of gas thus increasing the surface area and therefor surface activity of the particles.

FLUIDIZED BED (FISSION) REACTOR (CLASS 376)
A reactor in which the fuel in the form of particles is maintained in a fluidized state by a fluid medium. (The fuel and the fluid are general moving in opposite directions). See subclass 355. (Includes also support of fuel in pellet form in a liquid bath by an upwardly flowing liquid).

FLUORESCENT OR PHOSPHORESCENT MATERIAL (CLASS 313)
A material which absorbs radiant energy of one wave length (e.g., light) and is excited thereby to cause it to emit radiant energy of another wave length (e.g., light of another wave length), or a material which is excitable by the impact of electrons, ions, or analogous energy (e.g., gamma rays) thereon to emit light energy without becoming incandescent.

FLUOROUS SYNTHESIS (CLASS 506)
Approach for solution-phase synthesis which takes advantage of the ability of highly fluorinated groups to partition out of aqueous and most organic solutions into a third phase comprising a fluorinated solvent. The fluorinated side chain can act as a soluble support for synthesis.

FLUX (CLASS 164)
(1) A substance that, by chemical action, promotes fusion of a solid material. (2) A material capable of forming with gangue or other earthy matter, a liquid melt having the fusibility and chemical characteristics suitable to a specific furnace process. Also, protective flux to retard undesirable reactions.

FLUX (CLASS 228)
A nonmetallic material to be applied to the work in order to: (1) shield the work from atmospheric oxygen or other harmful gases, (2) chemically remove oxides or other films, or (3) otherwise augment bonding.

FLYING (CLASS 083)
Moving with the work material. The term "flying" means that the part so described has, at the time of cutting, a motion component in the direction of the work as it moves to and through the cutting station.

FLYING TOOL (CLASS 072)
A tool*, other than a roller, having a tool face which, as disclosed, engages and acts upon bodily moving work while itself moving substantially in the same direction and at the same speed as such work.

FOCUSING (CLASS 396)
Focusing is the act of obtaining a sharp image of a subject by adjusting a lens system.

FONT (CLASS 400)
A complete assortment of type in the same style and size to imprint character* symbols having a substantially uniform appearance. Examples of font include elite and pica (both refer to size of type), italic (i.e., having slope to the right), and cursive (i.e., having flowing lines connecting individual characters in a style resembling handwriting), these being only a few of the fonts used in various typewriters.

FOOD (CLASS 099)
A man-made or naturally-occurring discrete article consumable by animals or humans for nourishment.

FOOTPRINT (CLASS 257)
Also called a land pattern. It is a combination of lands used to mount a surface mount component. Metal pads on a substrate surface are arranged in the same pattern as the leads or pads on the component itself.

FORBIDDEN ENERGY BAND (CLASS 438)
The energy band of a material which is located between a solid material'S conduction and valence bands. It is defined by the amount of energy that is needed to release an electron from its valence band to its conduction band. Electrons cannot exist in this gap. They are either below it, and bound to an atom, or above it, and able to move freely.

FORBIDDEN ENERGY BAND/REGION/GAP (CLASS 257)
The energy band of a material which is located between a solid material'S conduction and valence bands. It is defined by the amount of energy that is needed to release an electron from its valence band to its conduction band. Electrons cannot exist in this gap. They are either below it, and bound to an atom, or above it, and able to move freely.

FORMAT (CLASS 348)
The particular method for combining the time variable video signal with a synchronizing signal to allow reconstruction of an image from the originating video signal.

FORWARD BIAS (CLASS 257)
An external voltage applied in the conducting direction of a pn junction. A positive potential is connected to the p-type material and a negative potential to the n-type semiconductor material.

FORWARD BREAKOVER POTENTIAL (CLASS 257)
The value of positive terminal voltage at which a regenerative device (e.g., a silicon controlled rectifier), with its gate circuit open, becomes conductive.

FORWARD CURRENT (CLASS 257)
The current which flows across a semiconductor junction when a forward bias is applied across the junction.

FOULING (CLASS 210)
The act of depositing on the membrane surface something which will impede its proper functioning. Sometimes also termed "blinding".

FOUR-LAYER DIODE (CLASS 257)
A semiconductor diode with three junctions and only two terminals connected to the outer layers forming the junctions. This includes two terminal pnpn thyristors.

FOUR-PHASE CCD (CLASS 257)
A charge coupled device having four electrode sets and four gate voltages.

FOUR-SIDE LEAD LAYOUT (CLASS 257)
The situation wherein there are leads through all four sides of an integrated circuit package.

FOX (CLASS 438)
field oxide

FPD (CLASS 438)
field programmable device

FPGA (CLASS 438)
field programmable gate array

FRACTIONAL DISTILLATION (CLASS 202)
A separatory distillation operation in which distillate is collected over specific temperature intervals.

FRACTIONAL DISTILLATION (CLASS 203)
A separatory distillation operation in which distillate is collected over specific temperature intervals.

FRACTIONATION (CLASS 208)
The separation of one portion of the hydrocarbons of a mineral oil from another, regardless of the steps employed for affecting such separation. The separated fractions usually differ from each other in some chemical or physical property as for instance in boiling range (in the case of distillation) or solubility in a solvent (as in extraction).

FRAME (CLASS 351)
Mechanical parts, not including lenses, which serve to surround or support or which serve to interconnect elements of the frame.

FRAME (CLASS 352)
The space or area on a motion picture carrier normally occupied by one picture of a motion picture series.

FRAME (CLASS 396)
A frame is the space or area on a photographic medium normally occupied by one picture.

FRAME TRANSFER CCD (CLASS 257)
A charge coupled device area imager array with a separate image area, storage area, and read-out register area, the storage area being located between the image area and the readout area. This is distinguished from an interline-transfer CCD in which the sensing and storage/readout function areas are located next to each other.

FRAME TRANSFER CCD (CLASS 438)
A charge coupled device area imager array with a separate image area, storage area, and read-out register area, the storage area being located between the image area and the readout area. This is distinguished from an interline- transfer CCD in which the sensing and storage/readout function areas are located next to each other.

FREE EDGE(*) (CLASS 412)
The edge or edges of the bound book(*) which are not involved with the fastening together of the sheets(*), etc., into the book(*). The free edge is opposite the back(*) e.g., where the binding, stitching(*), sewing, etc. is located; the other edges are known as the head, i.e., the top edge and foot or bottom edge also known as the tail.

FREE ELECTRON (CLASS 257)
An electron not bound to a particular atom, but free to circulate among the atoms of a solid material.

FREE RUNNING OSCILLATOR (CLASS 331)
An oscillator wherein the driving system continuously supplies the losses of the frequency determining means so as to produce sustained oscillations.

FREE SPACE (CLASS 342)
Space where the movement of energy in any direction is substantially unimpeded, such as the atmosphere, the ocean or the earth.

FREE SPACE (CLASS 343)
Space where the movement of energy in any direction is substantially unimpeded, such as interplanetary space, the atmosphere, the ocean and other large bodies of water or the earth.

FREQUENCY (CLASS 334)
The number of complete alternations or cycles made by an alternating signal per unit of time. The frequency unit most used is cycles per second.

FREQUENCY ADJUSTING MEANS (CLASS 331)
Means for setting or controlling the generated frequency of the oscillator by varying a frequency determining element of the oscillator.

FREQUENCY BAND (CLASS 334)
A plurality of different frequency channels which are grouped together into a particular bunch or group of channels all designated or used for the same purpose. An example of this is the broadcast band which consists of a plurality of frequency channels whose center frequencies are separated by a specified amount, each frequency being used for the same purpose, namely the transmission of speech. A second example of a band of frequencies is the use of certain channels of frequencies for the transmission of television. Here the common purpose of the plural channels of frequencies making up the band is the transmission of a video signal plus an audio signal.

FREQUENCY CONVERSION (CLASS 363)
The transformation of electrical energy having a first frequency to electrical energy having a second frequency.

FREQUENCY DETERMINING ELEMENT (CLASS 331)
A passive network or device of the resonant or time constant type, which network or device forms the element of the oscillator which sets or determines the frequency or periodicity of the generated oscillations.

FREQUENCY DOMAIN (CLASS 348)
A way of looking at the frequency of waveform components.

FREQUENCY RESPONSIVE MEANS (CLASS 330)
Circuit means which acts on the signal to affect some frequency component of the signal differently from any other frequency components of the signal, for example, a tuned circuit or filter circuit which eliminates a frequency component, or an equalizer which emphasizes the signal amplitude of some frequency or frequency range of the signal with respect to others (e.g., tone control). See also, Frequency Selective Means, below.

FREQUENCY RESPONSIVE NETWORK (CLASS 333)
As the frequency of the applied energy changes over a band, the impedance of the network varies as a function of the frequency. Frequency responsive networks and devices are designed to obtain desired characteristics where a band of frequencies or different frequencies are involved.

FREQUENCY SELECTIVE MEANS (CLASS 330)
Network means composed of some reactive elements which permit the passage of certain frequency components or a frequency component and block others. See also, Frequency Responsive Means.

FREQUENCY STABILIZATION (CLASS 331)
The correction for, prevention of, or compensation for an undesired drift or change in the frequency of the generated waves of the oscillator from a desired value.

FREQUENT USAGE INCENTIVE (CLASS 705)
A point, mile, etc., which is given to a user for customer loyalty (e.g., purchasing goods, reading advertisements, etc.) to a product, merchant or service.

FREQUENT USAGE REWARD (CLASS 705)
A n award (i.e., prize) given to a user when he/she trades in his/her accumulated points, miles, etc., earned as part of a frequent usage incentive program.

FRIT (CLASS 501)
A glass composition in a powdered or granulated state prepared by fusing the glass and quenching it in a cold liquid. Frits form an important part of the batches used in compounding glazes and enamels.

FRONT(*) (CLASS 412)
The first page or first sheet(*) of a book(*).

FTIR (CLASS 438)
Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy

FUEL (CLASS 110)
A combustible material having good combustible properties such as a relatively low ignition temperature, a long burning time, and a minimum of impurities which hinder combustion and used primarily to produce heat.

FUEL CELL (CLASS 320)
An electrochemical generator that uses the reaction of oxygen and a hydrocarbon fuel, or derivative thereof (e.g., hydrogen, etc.), to convert chemical energy into electricity. It is distinguishable from a voltaic cell because of its use of a hydrocarbon for fuel, and because it can operate continuously without a voltaic cell's inherent chemical degradation of electrodes, as long as fuel and oxygen are available or supplied.

FUEL CELL (CLASS 429)
A device used to produce an electrical current wherein one of the reactants is fed to the cell.

FUEL COMPONENT: (CLASS 149)
For the purpose of this class is a material intended for reacting, or to be used in combination, with an oxidant component and includes such finely divided materials as metals (including alloys and intermetallic compounds), metalloids, metal-metalloid compounds, hydrides of metals or metalloids, carbon, sulfur, vegetable material, carbohydrates, hydrocarbons and nitrogen containing organic compounds generally. (Certain substances as gels, paraffins, sulfur, etc., need not be finely divided.)

FUEL, FUEL ELEMENT, or FUEL COMPONENT (CLASS 376)
See Nuclear Fuel.

FUGITIVE MATERIAL (CLASS 419)
A material which is incorporated in the powder admixture which is wholly destroyed or separated from the other materials in a subsequent step prior to or during the consolidation or sintering operation.

FUGITIVE TINTING (CLASS 008)
Denotes the application of a temporary or easily removable coloration to a material for identification or like purpose.

FULL-BANK (CLASS 234)
An assemblage of elements (e.g., tools or pattern-sensers*), which covers all significant points of an area to be operated on, usually in one cycle.

FULLERENE (CLASS 977)
Any of various cage-like, hollow molecules composed of hexagonal and pentagonal groups of atoms, and especially those formed from carbon, that constitute the third form of carbon after diamond and graphite; alternatively, a class of cage-like carbon compounds composed of fused, pentagonal, or hexagonal sp2 carbon rings.

FULLERIDE (CLASS 977)
Fullerene doped with alkali metal.

FULLY IONIZED (CLASS 376)
For the purpose of this class, is state in which atoms are entirely stripped of their orbital electrons for atoms of low mass number, this occurs at kinetic temperatures in the region of 1 Kev or more. In other words, matter is in a state of complete ionization; it consists of a gas composed of positively charged nuclei and an equivalent number of negative electrons with no neutral particles. See also Plasma.

FUNCTION (CLASS 400)
In general, an operation performed on or by a typewriter during use of the typewriter for typing. As used by the typewriter industry, however, the term "function" is limited to an operation other than (a) impressing a type-member* against a record-medium* to imprint a character* (which thereby concurrently effects a character-space*), or (b) effecting a word-space*. Examples of typewriter operations considered by the industry to be functions are: backspace, carriage return, case-shift*, tabular stopping, line-space* (i.e., for record-medium feed), ribbon feed, and similar typewriter movements.

FUNNEL (CLASS 141)
A fluid handling device of increasingly restricted capacity in the direction of flow and having its free end arranged to enter into the inlet of a receiver, being ordinarily designed to collect an unconfined flow and channel it into a narrower flow path or one which is out of line with the previous path or flow direction. The material may be retained in the funnel body by valve means, and the funnel may comprise the only claimed supply means of the filling system or an intermediate or final receiver, and may be supported by either the preceding or succeeding flow confining means, or by a means external to the flow system.

FURNACE (CLASS 373)
A chamber, enclosure, or other holding means for heating materials therein.

FUROX (CLASS 438)
fully recessed oxide isolation

FUSED OR BRIDGED RING SYSTEM (CLASS 514)
Denotes a ring system having at least two rings which (a) share with each other two adjacent ring atoms, or (b) share with each other three or more ring atoms and wherein each ring having shared atoms is either a heterocyclic ring or a carbocyclic ring.

FUSED OR BRIDGED RING SYSTEM (CLASS 520)
Denotes a ring system having at least two rings which (a) share with each other two adjacent ring atoms, or (b) share with each other three or more ring atoms and wherein each ring having shared atoms is either a heterocyclic ring or a carbocyclic ring.

FUSION (CLASS 376)
For the purpose of this class, is a nuclear reaction in which light nuclei combine to form a nucleus of a heavier mass number. See also Thermonuclear Fusion Reaction.

FUSION BONDING (CLASS 065)
Welding by bringing glass, while molten or softened by heating, into intimate contact with another part with subsequent cooling to solid phase whereby uniting is effected.

FUZZY LOGIC (CLASS 701)
A form of AI in which variables can have degrees of truthfulness or falsehood represented by a range of values between 1 (true) and 0 (false). The outcome of an operation using fuzzy logic can be expressed as a probability rather than as a certainty (e.g., inexact reasoning).

| A | B | C-CL | CM-CZ | D-DIM | DIM-DZ | E | F | G | H | I | J-K | L | M-MET | MET-MZ | N | O | P-PHA | PHE-PON | POR-PZ | Q | R | S-SEPA | SEPO-SMT | SN-STEM | STEP-SZ | T-TOG | TON-TZ | U | V | W | X-Z |

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