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USPTO Terms of Art — CM to CZ

Glossary of USPTO Terms of Art

| A | B | C-CL | CM-CZ | D-DIM | DIM-DZ | E | F | G | H | I | J-K | L | M-MET | MET-MZ | N | O | P-PHA | PHE-PON | POR-PZ | Q | R | S-SEPA | SEPO-SMT | SN-STEM | STEP-SZ | T-TOG | TON-TZ | U | V | W | X-Z |

CML (CLASS 438)
Current mode logic (i.e., ECL)

CMOS (CLASS 257)
See COMPLEMENTARY METAL OXIDE SEMICONDUCTOR.

CMOS (CLASS 438)
Complementary (NMOS and PMOS) FETs

CMP (CLASS 438)
chemical-mechanical polishing/planarization

COAL TAR (CLASS 208)
Mixture of aromatic hydrocarbons obtained by the distillation of bituminous coal.

COALESCE (CLASS 210)
The merging together of small droplets or particles of a material or constituent dispersed in a liquid to form larger bodies of the material or constituent which may be more easily handled.

COATING (CLASS 065)
See Subclass References to the Current Class, above, for a subclass reference to the term "coating."

COATING (CLASS 118)
The term "coating" is used throughout the definitions in a generic sense to mean either (1) an initially fluent film or layer of material lying on or bonded to the surface of a base, or (2) an impregnating material which penetrates the base either partially or completely and all or part of which is retained therein, either in its original form or physically or chemically combined therewith.

COAX (COAXIAL CABLE) (CLASS 725)
A two-conductor (center conductor, shield system), concentric, constant impedance transmission line used as the trunk medium in the baseband system. In broadband networks, a cable with two conductors where one completely surrounds the other. Coax cables are unbalanced transmission lines that have an outer conductor that shields the center conductor from electrostatic interference. The two conductors are spaced by an insulating dielectric that, depending on the mechanical and material configuration, affects the speed, attenuation, and impedance of transmission.

COB (CLASS 438)
(a) chip-on-board or (b) capacitor over bit-line

COD (CLASS 438)
Catastrophic optical damage

CODE (CLASS 234)
A system of symbols arbitrarily used to represent directions, words, letters, or numerical values. In this class, the term "code" wherever employed without further limitation should be regarded as meaning Combinational-Code*.

CODE (CLASS 380)
Information concealed by substitution of words or symbols for words of the concealed message.

CODED-INTERPOSER (CLASS 234)
An element which is movable to and from an effective position in which position portions of said element engage tools of a plurality of tool pairs, thereby completing a drive train for the subsequent effective transmission of actuating power to the corresponding tool pairs. (Cf. Interposer).

CODED-SELECTOR-MEANS (CLASS 234)
An element which is movable to and from an effective position in which it determines the selection of a plurality of tool pairs by other mechanism. (Note. This element differs from a coded-interposer* in that (a) it does not engage the selected tools, and (b) it has only one effective position, as distinguished from the differentially positionable coded-interposer* found in subclass 98).

CODING OR ECODING (CLASS 506)
Strategy whereby a surrogate analyte is associated with each member of a library in order to record its structure or the reaction sequence used for its preparation. This is usually achieved by the use of tags or labels attached to particles or solid supports on which the library members are assembled.

COG (CLASS 438)
Chip-on-glass

COHERENCE LENGTH (CLASS 257)
The typical distance an electron can travel before it is scattered (e.g., by a phonon, a defect, or an impurity).

COHERENCE LENGTH (CLASS 438)
The typical distance an electron can travel before it is scattered (e.g., by a phonon, a defect, or an impurity, etc.).

COHERENT LIGHT (CLASS 372)
A single frequency of light. A light beam in which the electric vector at any point in it is related to that at any other point by a definite, continuous sinusoidal function.

COHERER (CLASS 257)
A term which encompasses both active and passive type devices, the passive type being a resistor whose resistance decreases when subjected to a high frequency signal, and the active type being a rectifier which is made up of active solid-state particles which conduct and rectify current when connected into a cohesive element but which loses that characteristic when the particles are separated (e.g., by shaking a container in which the particles are located).

COHERER (CLASS 438)
A term which encompasses both active and passive type devices, the passive type being a resistor whose resistance decreases when subjected to a high frequency signal, and the active type being a rectifier which is made up of active solid-state particles which conduct and rectify current when connected into a cohesive element but which loses that characteristic when the particles are separated (e.g., by shaking a container in which the particles are located, etc.).

COIL (CLASS 072)
The product of an operation in which work is bent so that it surrounds an Axis-Of-Bend* through more than 360 degrees of revolution. As used in this class, the operation involves moving the work and progressively deflecting successive portions thereof in the same general direction which is arcuate with respect to the direction of movement of the work.

(1) Note. To produce a SPIRAL-COIL, the work is bent by deflection and wound, one convolution on a successive convolution, to form a scroll of gradually increasing diameter.

(2) Note. To produce a HELICAL-COIL, the work if deflected as described above, but an additional deflection or diversion is imposed on successive convolutions. The additional deflection is directed along the Axis-Of-Bend*. The additional component of bend is measured in terms of pitch, which term is used here in the same sense as applied to a screw or helix.

COIL (CLASS 336)
A conductor which creates a magnetic field due to the flow of current therein. It may be formed into one or more convolutions or turns, or have only a partial turn, or be straight.

COIL AXIS (CLASS 336)
That path along which a unit magnetic pole would experience a maximum force when a current is caused to flow in the coil conductor. For example, in a long, uniform, single layer cylindrical coil, the coil axis corresponds to the geometrical axis of the coil.

COIL SPRING (CLASS 267)
an element in the form of a spiral and which exhibits resilient characteristic when distorted from its original shape. May be in the form of a helix, a volute spiral or flat spiral.

COKE (CLASS 201)
Strictly this is the amorphous, solid residue of coal after the volatile material has been distilled off in a thermolytic distillation. The term is also applied in the art to the solid, carbonaceous residue from the thermolytic distillation of such materials as oil shale, petroleum and pitch.

COKE (CLASS 202)
Strictly this is the amorphous, solid residue of coal after the volatile material has been distilled off in a thermolytic distillation. The term is also applied in the art to the solid, carbonaceous residue from the thermolytic distillation of such materials as oil shale, petroleum and pitch.

COKING (CLASS 208)
A cracking type conversion in which solid, free carbon or coke as a product thereof. Additional liquid or gaseous hydrocarbon may also be obtained.

COLLATING-TABLE (CLASS 400)
A platform or support used while a plurality of sheets or webs are arranged or assembled according to an orderly system. The sheets or webs may include record-medium* pieces or transfer-medium* pieces in any desired order or sequence and the assemblage of pieces comprises that which is to be typed on. The term "collating" as used in this class (400) is used to describe a simple structure that is used for collating, usually manually. It differs somewhat from the term collating as applied to a machine that accomplishes a similar result of arranging or assembling plural sheets or webs.

COLLECTIVE PITCH CHANGE (CLASS 416)
Wherein the blade angles of all working members* of a single impeller are adjusted simultaneously.

COLLECTOR (CLASS 257)
That end region of a bipolar transistor which forms one of the main current regions and which is reverse biased in operation with respect to the base region.

COLLECTOR CURRENT (CLASS 257)
The current which flows through the terminal of the collector region of a bipolar transistor.

COLLECTOR DIFFUSION ISOLATION (CDI) (CLASS 257)
An electrical isolation technology used for bipolar devices which employs an epitaxial layer, which forms transistor base regions, laid on a substrate of the same conductivity type (p or n) as the epitaxial layer, with an opposite conductivity type region, more heavily doped than the epitaxial base layer and located between the layer and the substrate, forming the collector and isolating the transistor from the substrate.

COLLECTOR DIFFUSION ISOLATION (CDI) (CLASS 438)
An electrical isolation technology used for bipolar devices which employs an epitaxial layer, which forms transistor base regions, laid on a substrate of the same conductivity type (p or n) as the epitaxial layer, with an opposite conductivity type region, more heavily doped than the epitaxial base layer and located between the layer and the substrate, forming the collector and isolating the transistor from the substrate.

COLLECTOR ELECTRODE (CLASS 330)
See the definition of point contact or junction type transistor below.

COLLOID (CLASS 977)
Suspension of finely divided particles in a continuous medium, which may be gaseous, liquid, or solid.

COLLOIDAL (CLASS 210)
A state of very fine division of a material dispersed throughout a liquid almost to the point of a true solution and either impossible or extremely difficult to filter or cause to settle.

COLOR IMAGE IN OR ON AN IMAGE RECORD (CLASS 430)
At least a portion of the image record absorbs only part of the light in the visible electromagnetic spectrum, excludes black image on white background, or vice versa, includes black image on green background.

COMBINATION (CLASS 070)
The prearranged or predetermined secret or nonpublic succession or order of movement of blocking elements, or the peculiar arrangement or scheme of fixed or movable elements designed to secure against public operation or control.

COMBINATIONAL-CODE (CLASS 234)
A system of symbols each comprising two or more marks or perforations which by their number and/or position arbitrarily represent bits of information. (Cf. one-hole- code*, defined below).

COMBINATIONAL-CODING-MEANS (CLASS 234)
Means which is differentially responsive to distinguishable forces or input-impulses* to prepare corresponding predetermined distinct combinations of less than the total number of tool pairs for actuation. (Note. This is the subject matter of subclass 94 of this class).

COMBINATORIAL LIBRARY (CLASS 506)
A set of compounds (a library) prepared by combinatorial synthesis. This set may consist of a collection of pools or sublibraries.

COMBINATORIAL SYNTHESIS (CLASS 506)
Combinatorial synthesis is the preparation of sets of diverse entities by the combination of sets of chemical building blocks (e.g., reagents, etc.).

COMBINE (CLASS 460)
A machine in which six major operations are performed during harvesting; cutting the standing grain (cutting unit); feeding the cut grain to the threshing unit (feeding unit); threshing and rethreshing the grain or seed from the heads; separating the grain from the straw and chaff; cleaning the threshed grain; collecting the threshed grain for convenient handling (grain handling unit).

COMBINED (CLASS 347)
Means connected with the marking* device for adapting the device to a particular marking* purpose.

COMBUSTION (CLASS 110)
The chemical action resulting from the direct combination of oxygen gas, generally in air, with a combustible material accompanied by the evolution of heat and light.

COMBUSTION (CLASS 431)
The direct combination of oxygen gas and a burnable substance.

COMBUSTION CHAMBER (CLASS 110)
The structure immediately surrounding the combustion reaction and generally above the fuel (*) or refuse (*) grate and designed to support or promote the combustion reaction.

COMFET (CLASS 438)
Conductivity modulation FET (i.e., IGBT)

COMMERCIAL (CLASS 725)
An advertisement provided within broadcast or point-to-point networks.

COMMON- or GATE-CONFIGURATION (CLASS 257)
A unipolar transistor in which the gate region is common to both input and output circuits.

COMMON-BASE CONFIGURATION (CLASS 257)
A bipolar transistor in which the base region is common to both the input and output circuit. This is also known as a grounded-base bipolar transistor circuit.

COMMON-COLLECTOR CONFIGURATION (CLASS 257)
A bipolar transistor in which the collector region is common to both the input and output circuit. It is also known as an emitter-follower bipolar transistor circuit.

COMMON-DRAIN CONFIGURATION (CLASS 257)
A unipolar transistor in which the drain region is common to both the input and output circuit.

COMMON-EMITTER CONFIGURATION (CLASS 257)
A bipolar transistor in which the emitter region is common to both the input and output circuit. It is also known as a grounded-emitter bipolar transistor circuit.

COMMUNICATION (CLASS 342)
The conveying or transferring or information; specifically a system, as a radio, television, telephone for conveying or transferring information.

COMMUNICATION (CLASS 343)
The conveying or transferring of information; specifically a system, as radio, telephone, telegraph for conveying or transferring information. For a general statement of the classes which include communication devices, apparatus and systems,see section V below.

COMMUNICATIONS (CLASS 375)
The transmission of information from one point to another.

COMMUTATOR (CLASS 388)
The part of a motor armature to which the armature windings are connected. It consists of a set of conductors arranged about the rotation axis of the armature and insulated from the axis and from one another. A set of stationary contacts, called "brushes" ride on the outer face of the conductors and thereby connect the armature windings to a power source.

COMPACTING (CLASS 419)
Forming of particulate material into a body or shape by the application of pressure to the particulate material without heating.

COMPANDER (CLASS 333)
An amplitude range compressor connected to an amplitude range expander with or without an intervening transmission line so that the amplitude range of the input wave is first decreased in the compressor and then increased in the expander.

COMPLEMENTARY METAL OXIDE SEMICONDUCTOR (CMOS) (CLASS 257)
Both n-type and p-type metal oxide semiconductor devices, e.g., transistors, formed on the same substrate.

COMPLETED BOOK(*) (CLASS 412)
A book(*) which has had its covering member attached.

COMPLEX COMPOUND (CLASS 423)
A chemical combination of two or more compounds or ions; e.g., 4 KCN and Fe (Cn)2 give the complex compound K4Fe (Cn)6; 2 HF and Si F4give the complex acid H2 Si F6. An electrically charged radical or group of atoms, e.g., Cu (NH3) 2+, is a complex ion.

COMPONENT (CLASS 112)
A distinct unitary element of a composite web or sheet which is longitudinally coextensive therewith and which, if separated from said multi-part web or sheet, would be recognized as a web or sheet by itself. A component may consist of plural layers as in the folded component shown in Figure 2. >

COMPONENT (CLASS 257)
An electronic device - active or passive - which has distinct electrical characteristics and has terminals for connection to other components to form a circuit.

COMPONENT (CLASS 403)
An element or a characteristic of a member used in effecting a connection.

COMPONENT (CLASS 428)
A distinct unitary element of a composite stock material* which is longitudinally coextensive therewith and which, if separated from the remainder of such stock material*, would be recognized as a web*, sheet*, rod*, strand*, tube or block by itself. A component may consist of plural layers* as in the folded component shown in Figure 1. See also (2) Note under A, above. (Structural) >

COMPONENT (CLASS 902)
A device within a data processing system* designed to process data (e.g., encrypting, modulating, transmitting, receiving, comparing, performing arithmetical calculations, etc.) after it has been entered by a user* (i.e., input) in order to formulate a response to the user (i.e., output) or to protect the data. Within the context of this collection, system components generally include a central data processor, a communication processor and network, and terminals at points distant from the central data processor and communicating with it through the communication components.

COMPONENT, REACTOR (CLASS 376)
For the purpose of this class, relates to any of the functional segments or parts comprising, when properly associated together, a nuclear reactor, e.g., fuel, moderator, coolant (fluid or solid), control rod, reflector, shield, etc.

COMPOSITE (CLASS 425)
A preform or product made of diverse materials, each of which is identifiable, at least in part, in the final product.

COMPOSITE (CLASS 428)
A stock-material* comprising a plurality of components*. (Structural)

COMPOSITE COLOR SIGNAL (CLASS 348)
A color picture signal with all blanking and synchronizing signals. Including luminance and chrominance components; vertical- and horizontal-sync pulses; vertical- and horizontal-blanking pulses; and the color burst signal, with or without accompanying audio.

COMPOSITE SHEET (CLASS 112)
A sheet comprising a plurality of components.

COMPOSITE VIDEO SIGNAL (CLASS 348)
A signal in television that conveys all of the intelligence present in the image together with the synchronizing information (e.g., vertical and horizontal pulses) with or without audio information.

COMPOSITE WEB (CLASS 112)
A web comprising a plurality of components.

COMPOSITION (CLASS 428)
A product having a plurality of constituents* or elements, none of which are in a defined spatial or ordered relationship to each other or to the surface or shape of the body in which they are contained, that is, a random mixture of elements. (Structural)

COMPOSITION (CLASS 588)
A mixture of material(s) such as elements, compounds, etc. which materials are not present in a ratio of small whole numbers based on molar ratios, i.e., mixtures.

COMPOUND (CLASS 257)
A homogeneous material which has definite proportions of chemically combined atoms or ions.

COMPOUND (CLASS 423)
A substance whose molecules consist of unlike atoms, whose constituents cannot be separated by physical means, whose properties are entirely different from those of its constituent elements and which contains definite proportions of its constituent elements, depending on their atomic weights.

COMPOUND (CLASS 423)
The elements or compounds comprising a material or produced from it by analysis.

COMPOUND (CLASS 588)
A substance whose molecules consist of unlike atoms, whose constituents cannot be separated by physical means, whose properties are entirely different from those of its constituent elements, and which contains definite proportions of its constituent elements, depending on their atomic weights.

COMPOUND SEMICONDUCTOR (CLASS 438)
A semiconductor composed of a chemical compound formed of elements from two or more different groups of the chemical periodic chart (e.g., Group III (B, Al, Ga, In) and Group V (N, P, As, Sb) for the following compounds: AlP, AlAs, AlSb, GaP, GaAs, GaSb, InP, InAs, and InSb, or a compound of silicon and carbon (SiC)).

COMPRESSOR OR VOLUME COMPRESSOR (CLASS 330)
A device that compresses the volume range, as in recording sound, radio-telephone transmission, etc.. In compressing the signal volume range the amplification of large signals is reduced and of small signals is increased.

COMPUTER (CLASS 345)
A machine that inputs data, processes data, stores data, and outputs data.

COMPUTER (CLASS 705)
A machine that inputs data, processes data, stores data, and outputs data.

COMPUTER (CLASS 706)
A machine that inputs data, processes data,stores data and outputs data.

COMPUTER (CLASS 707)
A machine that inputs data, processes data, stores data, and outputs data.

COMPUTER (CLASS 709)
A machine that inputs data, processes data, stores data, and outputs data.

COMPUTER (CLASS 711)
A machine that inputs data, processes data, stores data, and outputs data.

COMPUTER (CLASS 712)
A machine that inputs data, processes data, stores data, and outputs data.

COMPUTER (CLASS 713)
A machine that inputs data, processes data, stores data, and outputs data.

COMPUTER (CLASS 714)
A machine that inputs data, processes data, stores data, and outputs data.

COMPUTER (CLASS 718)
A machine that inputs data, processes data, stores data, and outputs data.

COMPUTER (CLASS 719)
A machine that inputs data, processes data, stores data, and outputs data.

COMPUTER PROGRAM (CLASS 706)
An algorithm and data structures constituting a set of instructions in some computer language, intended to be executed on a computer to perform a useful task.

COMPUTER-READABLE STORAGE MEDIA (CLASS 706)
Physical material on which data bits are read and written by a computer; excluding paper and other non-computer written media.

COMPUTER: (CLASS 700)
A machine that inputs data, processes data, stores data, and outputs data.

CONCAVE (CLASS 460)
A device consisting of a series of bars that are held together by rods or straps and is curved to match the cylinder. It is sometimes adjustable up and down to allow the operator to change the cylinder to concave clearance.

CONCAVE SPACING (CLASS 460)
The radial distance between the concave and the cylinder on a combine.

CONCEALED STITCH (CLASS 112)
A stitch in which the sewing thread completely penetrates one or more layers of material and is hidden from view on at least one side of the assembly by a fold of material overlying the stitch.

CONCENTRATED LIGHT SOURCE (CLASS 353)
The source of illumination for the projector. It may be either a projection lamp or a lens and mirror system utilizing sunlight.

CONCENTRATED LIGHT SOURCE (CLASS 355)
The source of illumination for the copier. It is usually a projection lamp but may be a lens or mirror system utilizing sunlight.

CONCENTRATION GRADIENT (CLASS 257)
A difference in dopant concentration (p- or n-type) from one position to another in a semiconductor.

CONCENTRIC LINES (CLASS 330)
A transmission line in which one conductor extends within a second hollow conductor.

CONCEPT-RELATION-CONCEPT (CRC) TRIPLES (CLASS 707)
A logical structure for storing data representative of real-world knowledge through the use of objects or concepts (stored as nodes), and relationships between them (stored as links between the nodes). When combined, they can form large semantic networks, or ontologies. See also Ontology, Semantic Network and Taxonomy.

CONDENSATE (CLASS 201)
See Distillate in the Class Definition section.

CONDENSATE (CLASS 202)
See distillate in the Class Definition.

CONDENSATE (CLASS 203)
See "distillate" in the class definition.

CONDENSATE (CLASS 425)
Material derived by a change in physical state from a vapor to a liquid.

CONDENSATION (CLASS 260)
Denotes combination between at least two or more molecules of the same or different carbon compounds between carbons thereof.

CONDENSED (CLASS 435)
Bridged or fused.

CONDENSED-BILLING (CLASS 400)
A term used in the typewriter industry for the production of a condensed or summary record of a succession of typed documents (e.g., bills or numerical data). The operation includes the typing of plural copies (e.g., an "original copy" and one or more "carbon copies", or duplicate "original copies") simultaneously on plural record-medium* pieces. At least one of the pieces is intended to be complete as to heading, address, and other information that is to be sent to one user. At least another piece is to be retained by the typist, and is not required to be complete; that is, it may omit much of the information, but may be a composite or summary or condensed record of the information that is to be sent. The record-medium on which the condensed-billing is typed is therefore moved in line-space* distances that differ from the line-space distances of the complete record medium.

CONDENSER (CLASS 320)
An obsolete or out-of-favor term for "capacitor." Although still used in the automotive field to refer to a capacitor used across ignition points to prevent arcing, it is interpreted as being synonymous with "capacitor" in this class, with no implied limitation to its use.

CONDENSING LENS (CLASS 353)
A lens which parallels the light from the light source for uniform distribution over the object to be projected and makes the light impinge on the object at right angles to the plane of the object.

CONDENSING LENS (CLASS 355)
A lens or combination of lenses used to gather light from a source and converge (condense) it onto an image plane.

CONDITION RESPONSIVE (CLASS 198)
Apparatus having (1) means to sense a condition of the environment surrounding the conveyor and means responsive to said sensing means to cause a change in the operating condition of the conveyor, or (2) means to sense a particular condition which may or may not exist relative to the conveyor itself, such as speed, overload, motor temperature, etc., and means responsive to said sensing means to act to change the operating condition of the conveyor.

CONDITION RESPONSIVE (CLASS 475)
Mechanism to sense a condition or change of condition in the environment of a planetary gear transmission; and, in response to such sensing, effect a control function on the transmission or on a drive train* to or from such transmission.

CONDUCTION BAND (CLASS 257)
A partially filled energy band in which electrons can move freely, permitting a material to carry electric current where electrons are the current carriers.

CONDUCTION BAND (CLASS 438)
A partially filled energy band in which electrons can move freely, permitting a material to carry electric current where electrons are the current carriers.

CONDUCTION ELECTRONS (CLASS 257)
In a conductor or n-type semiconductor, outer shell electrons that are bound so loosely that they can move freely in the conduction band of a solid material under the influence of an electric field.

CONDUCTION ELECTRONS (CLASS 438)
In a conductor or n-type semiconductor, outer shell electrons that are bound so loosely that they can move freely in the conduction band of a solid material under the influence of an electric field.

CONDUCTIVITY (CLASS 257)
The ability of a material to conduct electric current. Its converse is resistivity.

CONDUCTIVITY WATER (CLASS 210)
An extremely pure water characterized by high ohmic resistance due to very low rate of ionization. See POLISHING.

CONDUCTOR (CLASS 257)
A material which offers comparatively little resistance to the flow of current.

CONDUCTOR (CLASS 336)
A body designed to have an electric current flowing therein. For the purpose of classification, a magnetic core is distinguished from a conductor. A conductor is designed to be connected to a source of electromotive force, or to have induced therein a voltage by inductive coupling from a current carrying conductor. A conductor, when used as a coil, and connected either directly or by mutual inductance to a source of electromotive force, creates a magnetic field due to the flow of current in the conductor. See the definition of core.

CONDUCTOR (CLASS 338)
A body which is essentially a carrier of electric current with a minimum of loss as by heating.

CONDUCTOR (CLASS 439)
A member intended to transmit electricity from one portion or end thereof to another portion or end thereof, and to which electricity-transmitting member the electricity-conducting part of an electrical connector is intended to be electrically joined or attached.

(1) Note. A conductor may include such diverse members as an electrical cable, a wire (either stranded or solid), a grounding plate, an inductive shield, a bus bar, or an electricity-transmitting path formed of a conductive film deposited on an insulating plate or panel, etc.

CONDUCTOR SPACING (CLASS 257)
The distance between adjacent edges (not centerline to centerline) of isolated conductive patterns in a conductor layer.

CONFIGURATION (CLASS 330)
The arrangement of electrodes of a transistor as input and output electrodes, e.g., common base configuration, where the base is included in both the input and output circuits of a transistor amplifier.

CONFINEMENT PLASMA (CLASS 376)
For the purpose of this class, is either the containment or restraint force or the means (structure) for producing such force placed upon the charged particles or plasma, e.g., by electric or magnetic fields, so as to restrict said particles or plasma within a given volume.

CONNECTING (CLASS 385)
The physical or mechanical joining of optical waveguiding structures to provide a stable region of light transfer therebetween. The waveguiding structures which are joined together are characterized by terminal ends which are mechanically prepared. This includes ferrule type housings for demountable as well as permanent connections, mechanical sleeves which partially or wholly surround and secure the ends of the structures or the light transfer regions, and "assistance-type" structures which serve to align and guide the ends of waveguiding structures into an effective light transfer relationship. The waveguiding structures which can be connected (as defined herein) include optical fibers, optical fiber bundles, nonfiber-like optical waveguides, and electro-optical transmitting or receiving devices (e.g., semiconductor laser diodes).

CONNECTOR (CLASS 403)
A retainer which serves to hold the members against separation.

CONNECTOR (CLASS 439)
A device for forming an electricity-conducting joint between conductors of electricity, wherein the device either (1) consists solely of an electricity-conducting element having a contact surface for forming the joint or (2) comprises an assembly which includes an electricity-conducting element having a contact surface for forming the joint and further includes any structure necessary to support, carry, or encase the conductive element; and wherein the joint is of a type which may be readily made and broken, repeatedly, either (a) by engaging or disengaging the conductive element or (b) by engaging or disengaging the conductive element with a conductor.

CONNECTOR AREA (CLASS 257)
That portion of metallized conductors used for providing external electrical connections from a component to a chip or other component.

CONNECTOR AREA (CLASS 438)
That portion of the electrical conductors (e.g., bonding pad, die bond, etc.) used for providing external electrical connections from a component to a chip or other component.

CONSOLIDATE (CLASS 075)
To form into a compact mass.

CONSOLIDATION (CLASS 419)
Forming of particulate material into a unitary body without heating. This may or may not include the application of pressure to the particulate material (e.g., slip casting).

CONSTITUENT (CLASS 428)
A discrete element* (e.g., strand*, fiber*, particle*, etc.) of a component* or product.

CONTACT (CLASS 257)
The parts of a conductor designed to touch or be touched by other such parts of an electrical conductor to carry current to or from the conductor.

CONTACT (CLASS 438)
The point or part of a conductor which touches another electrical conductor or electrical component to carry electrical current to or from the conductor or electrical component.

CONTACT (CLASS 439)
An electricity-conducting component of an electrical connector, including a contact surface intended to form a readily made and broken electricity-conducting joint by directly engaging either a conductor or a corresponding surface of a cooperating joint-forming conductive component, so as to permit the passage of electricity through the joint from one component to the other.

CONTACT WINDOW (CLASS 257)
An opening in an insulating layer to expose an underlying conductor to permit electrical contact thereto. It is also called a via hole.

CONTAINED IN (CLASS 506)
A library "contained in" a micro-organism, a cell, or a vector is a library in which the members are present in the respective biological entity (e.g., in a plasmid, etc.).

CONTAINER (CLASS 413)
For purposes of this class is a closed can (e.g., soft drink, beer), full or empty.

CONTAINING (CLASS 532)
This term is to be interpreted broadly. In a subclass which specifies halogen containing, for example, the halogen may be attached to other parts of the compound by ionic bonding or nonionic bonding. Further, the element contained in a material may be in any form. In a subclass such as-- Heavy metal containing catalyst (or material) utilized--, the metal may be in elemental or compound form.

CONTAINMENT (CLASS 588)
To hold or enclose totally to prevent any leaching or leaking of the hazardous or toxic material into the environment, and any use of a container that is destroyed with the waste.

CONTAINS (CLASS 528)
For purposes of this class, the term "contains" under a specific reactant subclass includes the term "with" and merely requires the presence of the "contains" material. The required moiety, element, etc., may be in the specific reactant or in an additional reactant.

CONTAMINATE (CLASS 588)
To make a first substance impure (hazardous or toxic) by contact with or by the addition of a second or more substances.

CONTENTS (CLASS 053)
The goods or materials which are, or are to be, confined within the space defined by the cover of the package, An insert sheet or coupon, to be packaged with other goods is considered to be a part of a group contents. See "GROUP FORMING". A package resulting from a first packaging operation may become the contents of a second packaging operation.

CONTINUOUS CASTING (CLASS 164)
Process of forming a product of indeterminate length wherein a portion of the product is removed from a forming mold or surface as a further contiguous portion is cast.

CONTINUOUS CASTING STRAND (CLASS 164)
Semi-solidified product of a continuous casting process or apparatus comprising a generally molten center contained within a cooler solidified shell.

CONTROL (CLASS 072)
To start, or to modify the operating condition of, any portion of a work-treating or handling device

(1) Note. "Stopping" is ordinarily regarded as an aspect of "Control", but is separately treated in this class in accordance with the class schedule. See subclasses 1+.

CONTROL (CLASS 323)
Includes either the maintenance of a condition at a predetermined value or the variation of a condition from one value to another.

CONTROL (CLASS 330)
A selective adjustment of an element of an amplifier to vary the operation of the amplifier in a desired manner, or the characteristic of a part of the amplifier whereby in response directly to signal, or by means of a developed voltage or current in response to the signal, or by a voltage from some outside source, the impedance characteristics of a circuit element, or the electrical characteristics (bias or energizing voltage) of an amplifying device are automatically altered to change the operation of the amplifier in a predetermined manner. Such control may be by a nonlinear impedance element alone in a biasing or power supply circuit. The term control has not been applied in this class, when a nonlinear impedance element is in the signal path and affects the signal only, without any control from a separate path being applied to vary such impedance.

CONTROL (CLASS 347)
Means to regulate the operation of the head*, the medium, and the other parts of the marking* device so that the device will operate in the intended manner.

CONTROL (CLASS 363)
Includes either the maintenance of a condition at a predetermined value or the variation of a condition from one value to another.

CONTROL (CLASS 725)
To regulate the passage, progress, or exchange of data.

CONTROL ELECTRODE (CLASS 313)
An electrode designed to influence or control the discharge current flowing between other electrodes. It may depend for its effect on either its electro-static effect or on the current flow thereto. The most common type of control electrode is the control grid. Since, however, the grid may be used as an anode, and the anode as a grid in many types of discharge devices, the use of the expression "control electrode" has been avoided where possible and similar structures placed together irrespective of whether the disclosure indicated that the grid electrode is to be used as an anode or control electrode. Patents relating to discharge devices having one or more grid electrodes interposed between a cathode and an anode are classified in subclasses 293+ or in the subclasses referred to in the notes to these subclasses. See subclass 308 and the subclasses referred to in the notes thereto for other discharge devices having a control electrode.

CONTROL ELECTRODE (CLASS 330)
An electrode designed to influence or control the discharge current flowing between other electrodes. It may depend for its effect on either its electrostatic effect or on the current flow thereto. The most common types of control electrodes are the signal control grid, or the gain control electrode or grid.

CONTROL ELEMENT (CLASS 376)
For the purpose of this class, is rods, tubes, plates, etc., of a reactivity affecting material used to hold a fission reactor at a given power level or to vary the rate of reaction. Control elements can be given three names corresponding to three different functions, namely: (a) power control, regulating or fine control (affecting only a small change in reactivity); (b) safety or scram (capable or reducing the reactivity below critical and used general when some emergency condition exists, such as power level to high); and (c) shim (affecting a relatively large change in reactivity of a reactor, i.e., it is used for coarse control or reactivity).

CONTROL GRID (CLASS 330)
A control electrode having grid construction.

CONTROL ROD (CLASS 376)
See Control Element.

CONTROL* (CLASS 187)
Means for regulating the operation of a separate and distinct force generating, transmitting, or retarding device (e.g., motor, drive-means*, brake) which moves or stops the movement of a relatively movable component of apparatus proper for this class (e.g., elevator car), and includes both (a) an information input component (e.g., sensor, information storage means, manual push button) and (b) a distinct component which effects the operation of the force generating, transmitting, or retarding device in a particular manner based on the input information.

CONTROLLABLE PITCH (CLASS 416)
Comprises means for adjusting blade angle* during impeller* operation.

CONVECTIVE DISTILLATION (CLASS 203)
A separatory distillation operation in which an inert vapor is passed through a heated liquid to reduce the partial vapor pressure of the component in the liquid desired to be recovered. It permits the separation of heat sensitive high boiling substances at temperatures below their decomposition temperature. Steam distillation is the most commonly used type of convective distillation.

CONVENTIONAL CHANNEL (CLASS 348)
A portion of the spectrum assigned for the standard operation of a specific carrier and the minimum number of sidebands necessary to convey intelligence.

CONVERSION (CLASS 208)
A treatment of the mineral oil which results in an alteration of the hydrocarbon molecule making up the mineral oil.

CONVERSION (CLASS 363)
This class (363), includes only the following: (1) Changing alternating current to direct current (rectification); (2) Changing direct current to alternating current (inverting); (3) Systems having means for performing a combination of the conversions of (1) and (2) above so that the input and output current are of the same character, but the system includes intermediate means to convert the current to a different character (e.g., A.C. to D.C. to A.C.); (4) Changing the frequency of alternating current from one frequency to a different frequency; (5) Changing electrical energy having one number phases to a different number of phases; (6) Combination of any of the above.

CONVERSION (CLASS 376)
For the purpose of this class, is the process of artificially bringing about a change or transformation in the nucleus of an atom. Nuclear conversion is generally caused by subjecting a material to particle bombardment, usually by neutron irradiation as happens in a fission reactor. See also Transmutation.

CONVEYOR (CLASS 175)
A mechanical device for receiving and carrying cuttings, for example, it may consist of a simple chute for directing cuttings away from the bore entrance, a helical screw fixed to the tool shaft, or a power-driven endless carrier type device extending between any two points within the bore or from any point within the bore to any location above ground.

CONVEYOR (CLASS 271)
Refers to "means for moving and placing the individual sheet with respect to a device for operation on the sheet." Thus, in the subclasses indented under "Feeding", the "Conveyor" may be modified by means for orienting, retarding or interrupting the feed relative to the operation; and in the subclasses indented under "Delivering", the "Conveyor" should be limited to a means for transporting the individual sheet from the operation or placing the individual sheet in a receiver for a stack of such sheets. In either case the conveyor of Class 271 is distinct from a conveyor of other classes, wherein material or articles are transported from an input location to an output location. Class 271 has also for many years included a device wherein a stack of sheets is moved as an article to a position at which sheets are removed from the stack by a separator, but has not included a device wherein a stack of sheets is formed by a delivery means, and subsequently the stack of sheets is moved as an article away from the formation position. See References With Other Classes, above, for the location of patents not proper for Class 271.

CONVOLUTE (CLASS 425)
To twist or to coil with one part of a preform overlapping another part.

COOLANT (CLASS 376)
A fluid (liquid, gaseous, or particulate) whose function is to absorb heat from the reactor core and to deliver this absorbed heat to a heat exchanger or other utilization means exterior to the reactor core.

COPE (CLASS 164)
The upper or topmost section of a flask, mold, or pattern.

COPY (n.) (CLASS 234)
A tangible object which carries or exhibits a picture, design, or record of data, for the guidance or direction of an operative or attendant of a selective cutting machine. (Cf. pattern*).

COPYING CAMERA OR PROJECTION PRINTER (CLASS 355)
Apparatus for projecting an image of an original, by passing light through or around the original or reflecting light from the original, onto a photosensitive recording surface for the purpose of making a copy of the original. The image is usually enlarged or reduced in size with reference to the original. A copying camera or projection printer generally includes (a) a concentrated light source from either an artificial or natural emanation, (b) a condensing lens or other light paralleling element, (c) a holding or positioning device for the original, (d) a projection objective or projection lens system for directing light after it passes through or is reflected from the original to form an image, (e) a holder for the photosensitive medium which receives the image, and (f) opaque structure to keep unwanted light from reaching the photosensitive medium. The cameras or projectors in this class utilize artificial or natural light within the visible spectrum. The original to be projected is planar in nature with the plane extending transverse to the direction of projection, and may be transparent or opaque. The planar original is usually in the form of flexible film and may be caused to take a curved form in the original holder or film gate. In operation the original is positioned outside one focal plane of the projection lens system and an image is formed on a photosensitive medium outside the opposite focal plane of the projection lens system. The closer the original is to one focal plane the farther the image will be from the other focal plane, and the bigger the image will be. In the camera or projector, the relative positioning of the object is usually obtained by moving the projection lens system and adjusting its focal length rather than by changing the position of the original.

CORE (CLASS 164)
A separable part of a mold that is used to create openings and various shaped cavities in the casting.

CORE (CLASS 249)
See the Class Definition, C, and see References to the Current Class for a reference to the difference between a core and plunger.

CORE (CLASS 336)
A magnetic or magnetizable body having a magnetic permeability greater than one. The proximate purpose of a core is to increase the inductance of an associated coil by increasing the number of magnetic flux interlinkages of the coil. Although the material of the core is electrically conductive such electrical conductivity is usually minimized by using magnetic material of high resistivity in the form of bundles of fine wires, stacks of thin laminations insulated from each other or a suspension of iron powder in an electrically insulating binder.

CORE (CLASS 425)
A separable static male shaping surface providing a hollow portion in a casting. A core is differentiated from a plunger in that a plunger moves during a shaping operation.

CORE (CLASS 428)
intermediate portion of a composite* product. In a composite web* or sheet*, a core lies between two other components*; in a rod* or strand* or filament*, a core is the inner portion covered with another layer. If a core is claimed, per se, it is to be assumed for purposes of this class that the other layer(s)* or component(s)* are included. (Structural)

CORE BOX (CLASS 164)
A box or container in which foundry cores are made.

CORE PRINT (CLASS 164)
A special projection on a pattern for forming impressions or core seats in the mold into which the core itself is inserted. Also refers to the projection on the core itself which fits into the core seat.

CORE-PIT (CLASS 099)
That portion of an article of food that is located in and around the geometrical center of the food; however, the outer periphery of the core-pit is NOT necessarily equidistant for the outer periphery of the food, (e.g., a generally ellipsoidal "pit" in a generally spherical peach). Further, in some varieties of food (e.g., a relatively small variety of apple) a drilling or punch-die type means which may remove a substantially right circular cylinder section, when aligned with the stem-blossom axis of the apple, will usually remove not only the seed pocket but also that portion of the apple containing matter connected to both the stem and blossom ends of the apple. Thus, the core-pit portion may include a central portion only, or a central portion plus a right-circular-cylinder section containing the central portion.

CORE-PIT (CLASS 099)
This expression usually precedes the word "means", and is intended to comprehend a "mechanical treatment" which contacts all or a portion of the core-pit and then severs, tears away, separates, and/or removes the core-pit from the remaining portion of the food.

CORE, REACTOR (CLASS 376)
See Reactor Core.

CORK (CLASS 428)
The outer bark of cork oak. The cork may be in the form of slabs or may be used as a filler in finely divided form. (Nonstructural or Composition)

CORRELATION (CLASS 704)
A statistical measurement of the interdependence or association between two variables that are quantitative or qualitative in nature. A typical calculation would be performed by multiplying a signal by either another signal (cross-correlation) or by a delayed version of itself (autocorrelation).

CORROSION (See METAL CORROSION) (CLASS 510)

CORRUGATE (CLASS 425)
To shape a layer into parallel rows of wavelike folds extending along its width or length and transverse to the thickness.

CORRUGATING (CLASS 065)
Shaping a layer throughout its thickness into a row of wavelike folds.

CORUNDUM (CLASS 117)
Natural aluminum oxide; Al2O3; sometimes with intended small amounts of cobalt (green), chromium (red; i.e., ruby), iron (yellow), magnesium, or silica; synthetic emery.

COUNTER EMF (CLASS 388)
A voltage developed in an inductive circuit (e.g., in an armature winding) by an alternating or pulsating current. The polarity of this voltage is at every instant opposite that of the applied voltage.

COUPLING (CLASS 385)
The interchange of light radiation among or between waveguiding structures,wherein the mechanical interconnection between the structures is of little or no importance. The radiation interchange may be accomplished through any of a number of physical phenomena, including the evanescent wave coupling phenomenon, various modal coupling phenomena, refraction, reflection, as well as through induced changes in structure parameters which govern light transmission (for example, electro-optically or electromagnetically induced refractive index changes in an "interaction" or coupling region). However, devices for input/output of a light wave to/from an optical confinement area, or devices for manipulating an optical wave within or adjacent to an optical confinement area, which employ holography, are classified in the holography area of the Class 359 schedule.

COUPLING NETWORKS (CLASS 333)
(a) Networks including significant reactive structure for effecting the transfer of oscillatory energy from one circuit to another circuit and having attenuation and/or delay characteristics over a frequency range for attenuating and/or delaying in a predetermined manner wave energy passing therethrough, and/or providing an impedance match between the network and at least one of the circuits; (b) smoothing type wave filters having shunt capacitance, or series inductance, or both usually designed to pass direct current and to reduce the effect of any undesired alternating or pulsating current, or to pass direct current and low frequency alternating current or pulsating current and to reduce the effect of any undesired higher frequency alternating or pulsating current.

COUPLING PART (CLASS 439)
An electrical connector comprising a contact and additional supporting structure specially adapted to mate with a specific complementary electrical connector.

(1) Note. A "specific complementary electrical connector" is also a "coupling part" in this class, but may be referred to as a "mating part" in order to distinguish it from the first mentioned coupling part. Also, such a "counterpart" and the complementary contact thereof may be referred to as the "counter-contact".

(2) Note. A relatively short, generally stationary rodlike connector is not considered to be a "coupling part" even though it otherwise meets the limitations of this definition, because such structure has not been so considered in the past. Similarly, a connector for interfitting with such a short rodlike connector is not considered to be a "coupling part". Such a connector may commonly be used on an automobile electrical energy battery. Note further that this restriction does not apply to a generally fixed socket and a cooperating short rodlike connector.

(3) Note. A bare wire (or cable) making electrical contact is not a coupling part; nor is a connector for making direct engagement with such a wire. Also, neither a threaded stud nor a ring for fitting over such a stud is considered to be a coupling part.

COVALENT BONDING (CLASS 257)
The sharing of electrons by atoms in which each atom contributes one of a pair of electrons shared by another atom and forming a bond between those two atoms.

COVER (CLASS 052)
Generally synonymous with "roof" but used where "roof" in some instances may be inapt, e.g., a covering supported by an article, a canopy, a man-hole closure, etc.

COVER (CLASS 053)
A member, made from sheet material stock which serves to confine the contents by either a complete encasement or a partial encasement, and which fully encircles or encompasses the contents in at least one direction. A band, closure, preformed container, carton or receptacle, though said members are not "made from sheet material", are each considered covers for this class. A spindle or core which extends into or through a preformed aperture in the contents is considered to be a partial cover. See subclass 581. See "BAND", "CLOSURE", and "RECEPTACLE".

COVER-ADJUNCT (CLASS 053)
Some accessory, device or abiding characteristic which is supplied to, or formed integral with, a cover to perform some function in addition to the mere enclosing of the contents. Such adjuncts include the addition to a cover of (1) a filament, strand, wire, stamp, label, handle, or display support, (2) a filler piece for the gap resulting between two or more folded flaps, (3) some auxiliary cover seam retaining device, including a staple, a clip, a sewn stitch, or a simultaneously integrally formed and set tab-and-slot retaining means, (4) a coating, printing, embossing or other marking, ornamenting or display feature, (5) some means to provide for opening the cover such as, e.g., a tear strip, (6) a cover attached reinforcement, article holder, or article remover, or (7) a window or window opening, (8) a contents contacting sealing spot, disc or gasket, (9) a superimposed disc which is applied to a hood or cap so as to depress said disc and a portion of the hood or cap within the aperture of a receptacle, (10) a cam actuated sealing or gripping means on the closure for fastening said closure, or (11) a protection strip placed over the contents of a receptacle (e.g., matches) and inserted between the side of the receptacle and the contents. However, the operations of slitting or notching of cover blanks and flaps preparatory to the shaping of the cover, or the application of adhesive to the cover to aid in seam retaining are not considered cover-adjuncts for this class. Nor is the addition of a transitory characteristic to a cover for the purpose of aiding in the packaging, e.g., the addition of moisture to a wrapper, considered to be a cover-adjunct.

CRACKING (CLASS 208)
A conversion treatment in which the hydrocarbons of the mineral oil are broken down to a shorter carbon chain length, resulting in hydrocarbons having a lower boiling temperature, which may be carried out in the presence of a catalyst (catalytic cracking) or in the absence of any catalyst (thermal cracking).

CRACKLED (CLASS 065)
Glassware having a surface which was intentionally cracked by water immersion and partially healed by reheating.

CRASH(*) (CLASS 412)
A loose weave binding cloth which is generally applied with adhesive to the back(*) of a bound book(*) as a reinforcing material prior to the application of the book(*) covering member.

CREAM (CLASS 510)
Denotes a thick, usually opaque, emulsion having little or no tendency to flow.

CREPE (CLASS 008)
Crepe is a general classification of fabrics characterized by a broad range of crinkled or grained surface effects.

CRITICAL (CLASS 376)
For the purpose of this class, is the term used to describe the condition in which a chain reaction is being maintained at a constant level, i.e., it is just self-sustaining. In order for this state to exist a sufficient quantity of fissile material (critical mass) must be assembled in the proper shape and concentration.

Critical bandwidths (CLASS 704)
Bandwidths of the hearing process, as measured by the masking effect of a white, random noise in which a person detects a pure tone.

CROSS-LINKER DYE ADDITIVE (CLASS 008)
A cross-linker dye additive is a compound added to assist in dyeing which reacts chemically with both the dye and substrate, other than due to chelate formation.

CRUCIBLE (CLASS 117)
A vessel for containing a molten material. The crucible may be of the same material as the molten material and may ultimately become molten.

CRUCIBLE (CLASS 373)
A component of the furnace which holds, or otherwise contains the charge.

CRUCIBLE FURNACE (CLASS 075)
A furnace in which the material to be heated is placed in a refractory container, the container is covered with a lid, and the covered container is heated in a furnace. The material is heated solely by heat conducted through the walls of the crucible.

CRYOSAR (CLASS 257)
An active solid-state device which operates at cryogenic temperatures, i.e., at temperatures at or below 77 degrees Kelvin, by avalanche breakdown caused by impact ionization of device impurities.

CRYPTANALYSIS (CLASS 380)
Determination of encryption code of encrypted message (i.e., codebreaking).

CRYPTOCRYSTALLINE (CLASS 117)
Microscopic crystalline structure, indistinguishable to the naked eye.

CRYPTOGRAPHY (CLASS 380)
The study of secret information storage or communication.

CRYPTOGRAPHY (CLASS 705)
Secret information storage or communication. This includes equipment or process which (a) conceals or obscures intelligible information by transforming such information so as to make the information unintelligible to a casual or unauthorized recipient, or (b) extracts intelligible information from such a concealed representation, including breaking of unknown codes and messages.

CRYSTAL (CLASS 257)
A solid substance whose atoms are arranged with periodic geometric regularity, called a lattice.

CRYSTAL BOUNDARY (CLASS 117)
The interface between a crystal and its surroundings; e.g., another crystal, air.

CRYSTAL DEFECT (CLASS 257)
Any nonuniformity in a crystal lattice. There are four categories of crystal defects: (1) point defects, (2) line defects, (3) area defects, and (4) volume defects. Point defects include any foreign atom at a regular lattice site (substitutional site) or between lattice sites (interstitial site), anti-site defects in compound semiconductors, e.g., Ga in As or As in Ga, missing lattice atoms, and host atoms located between lattice sites and adjacent to a vacant site (Frenkel defects). Line defects, also called edge dislocations, include extra planes of atoms in a lattice. Area defects include twins or twinning (a change in crystal orientation across a lattice) and grain boundaries (a transition between crystals having no particular positional orientation to one another. Volume defects include precipitates of impurity or dopant atoms caused by volume mismatch between a host lattice and precipitates.

CRYSTAL DEFECT (CLASS 438)
Any nonuniformity in a crystal lattice. There are four categories of crystal defects: (a) point defects, (b) line defects, (c) area defects, and (d) volume defects. Point defects include any foreign atom at a regular lattice site (i.e., substitutional site) or between lattice sites (i.e., interstitial site), antisite defects in compound semiconductors (e.g., Ga in As or As in Ga), missing lattice atoms, and host atoms located between lattice sites and adjacent to a vacant site (i.e., Frenkel defects). Line defects, also called edge or screw dislocations, include extra planes of atoms in a lattice. Area defects include twins or twinning (i.e., a change in crystal orientation across a lattice) and grain boundaries (i.e., a transition between crystals having no particular positional orientation to one another). Volume defects include precipitates of impurity or dopant atoms caused by volume mismatch between a host lattice and precipitates.

CSBH (CLASS 438)
Channeled substrate buried heterostructure

CSL (CLASS 117)
Coherent Superlattice.

CSL (CLASS 438)
Coherent superlattice

CTD (CLASS 438)
Charge transfer device

CTSL (CLASS 117)
Coherent Tilted Superlattice.

CTSL (CLASS 438)
Coherent tilted superlattice

CULLET (CLASS 065)
Waste or broken glass.

CULLET (CLASS 425)
Waste or broken plastic.

CUPOLA (CLASS 075)
A shaft furnace primarily designed to melt metal by use of a solid fuel charged with the metal. A gas containing gaseous Oxygen (e.g., air) is blown into the bottom of the furnace to burn the fuel and cause the metal to melt from the heat of combustion.

CURE (CLASS 425)
A chemical or physical treatment to obtain a stable state of a preform or product, (e.g., by vulcanizing, drying, etc.).

CURRENT CONVERSION (CLASS 363)
The transformation of electrical energy from alternating current to direct current or the transformation of direct current to alternating current.

CURRENT OR VOLTAGE MAGNITUDE CONTROL (CLASS 363)
Includes controlling either the amplitude of the current or voltage, or controlling the average or effective value of the current or voltage, even though the amplitude is not controlled.

CUSHIONING MEANS: (CLASS 410)
Fore-and-aft slide cushioning means - Load unit protection means supplementing load accommodation. The effect of inadvertently inertial forces which could cause damage to the load unit is mitigated by means so supplementing accommodation as to permit such an extent of reactive movement of the load unit or the accommodating means, or both as to be adequate to prevent damage that could occur were the load rigidly fixed to the freight carrier. When the forces guarded against and the reactive movement acts in the direction along the longitudinal axis of the freight carrier, this is recognized as fore-and- aft direction slide cushioning. The effect of only mere compression-relaxation of a resilient block is not intended to be included in the cushioning concept.

CUT (CLASS 072)
To separate any portion of a workpiece from any other portion of the same workpiece by a step of machining (e.g., grinding, drilling, boring, milling, planing), severing (e.g., breaking, sawing, slicing, shearing), or by intrusion of a sharp-edged or pointed tool without removal of material (e.g., stabbing, splitting, intrusive punching). See "Sever" and "Pierce".

CUT-OFF (CLASS 141)
The term as used in this class means some mechanically operative element or device (not gas pressure) which arrests flow of material.

CUTOFF (CLASS 257)
A minimum value of voltage or current applied to an active device which stops the device from operating in a particular manner.

CUTTER (CLASS 407)
See Tool*.

CUTTING EDGE (CLASS 408)
A marginal portion of a tool comprising a line or point on the surface of the tool formed by the intersection of a plurality of planar surfaces, specifically adapted to perform a cutting function.

CVD (CLASS 117)
Chemical Vapor Deposition. CVD may be employed to produce single-crystal*, polycrystal, or amorphous material. See also MOCVD.

CVD (CLASS 438)
Chemical vapor deposition

CYANO (CLASS 987)
Denotes a triple bond between an adjacent carbon and nitrogen atom. As used in this class, cyano is always bonded directly to a phosphorus atom through the carbon atom.

CYCLE (CLASS 425)
A sequence of manipulative steps governed by a mechanism such as a cam, timer, program means, etc.

CYCLIC PITCH CHANGE (CLASS 416)
Wherein the blade angle of each working member of an impeller is varied for only a predetermined limited portion of each working cycle, each working member being similarly adjusted in sequence as it, in turn, reaches the predetermined portion of the working cycle. though the impeller need comprise only a single working member.

CYCLICAL OPERATION (CLASS 141)
This term describes a filling system in which no operator intervention is required from the time a receiver is placed in filling position at least until the receiver is filled and ready to be removed. The flow of contents material may be cut off by a movement of the receiver which occurs in the sequence of events in the machine.

CYCLO (CLASS 532)
This term refers to a ring of a polycyclo ring system.

CYCLOALIPHATIC (CLASS 987)
Denotes a ring composed solely of a carbon atom and includes aryl.

CYCLONE (CLASS 210)
A device using centrifugal force to separate. The process is called cyclonic; see centrifuge.

CYLINDER (CLASS 091)
A rigid external member which permanently surrounds the piston, the latter constituting a relatively moving wall for the expansible chamber, the other walls of which are formed by the cylinder, and the cylinder ordinarily including the abutment or reaction surface against which the motive fluid acts or the piston forming the abutment for the cylinder when the cylinder is movable and the piston fixed. However, the abutment or reaction surface for the piston need not necessarily be formed by the cylinder, but may be formed by a second relatively movable opposed piston within the cylinder. If the piston withdraws from the cylinder merely to control the motive fluid, the piston is still considered to be permanently surrounded by the cylinder.

CYLINDER (CLASS 092)
A rigid external member which permanently surrounds the piston, the latter constituting a relatively moving wall for the expansible chamber, the other walls of which are formed by the cylinder, and the cylinder ordinarily including the abutment or reaction surface against which the motive fluid acts, or the piston forming the abutment for the cylinder when the cylinder is movable and the piston fixed. However, the abutment or reaction surface for the piston need not necessarily be formed by the cylinder but may be formed by a second relatively movable opposed piston within the cylinder.

CYLINDER (CLASS 418)
An external member having wall or surface portions forming part of the working chamber of the rotary expansible chamber device, the member being either fixed or movable and may surround a fixed reaction member to move or be moved by the working fluid and may also include an abutment or reaction surface against which working fluid acts. However, the abutment or reaction surface for the rotary expansible chamber device need not necessarily be formed by the cylinder but may be formed by relatively movable opposed rotating members within the cylinder at least one of which is a working member.

CYLINDER (CLASS 460)
A device consisting of bars mounted on two hubs that are supported on a shaft that run the length of the threshing unit. There are three types of cylinders; rasp-bar cylinder, spike-tooth cylinder, and angle-bar cylinder.

CZ (CLASS 117)
Abbreviation for Czochralski. J. Czochralski was the Polish inventor of the basic single crystal pulling method (1918) bearing his name.

Cz (CLASS 438)
Czoshralski (melt pulling)

| A | B | C-CL | CM-CZ | D-DIM | DIM-DZ | E | F | G | H | I | J-K | L | M-MET | MET-MZ | N | O | P-PHA | PHE-PON | POR-PZ | Q | R | S-SEPA | SEPO-SMT | SN-STEM | STEP-SZ | T-TOG | TON-TZ | U | V | W | X-Z |

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