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USPTO Terms of Art — C to CL

Glossary of USPTO Terms of Art

| A | B | C-CL | CM-CZ | D-DIM | DIM-DZ | E | F | G | H | I | J-K | L | M-MET | MET-MZ | N | O | P-PHA | PHE-PON | POR-PZ | Q | R | S-SEPA | SEPO-SMT | SN-STEM | STEP-SZ | T-TOG | TON-TZ | U | V | W | X-Z |

C-SUBSTITUENT (CLASS 260)
Indicates that the substituent is bonded to a carbon.

CABLE (CLASS 049)
A flexible connector such as a rope, chain or the like.

CABLE (CLASS 439)
An elongated, flexible assembly of two or more elongated conductors intended to transmit electricity from one end to the other, the conductors being electrically insulated from one another but physically held together in association with one another.

(1) Note. The two or more physically associated but mutually insulated conductors are usually further enclosed within an outer protective or insulating covering or sheath.

(2) Note. A stranded, wire-type conductor is considered to be a single conductor.

CABLE (CLASS 725)
A transmission line or group of transmission lines mechanically assembled into a complex flexible form. Note: The conductors are insulated and are closely spaced and usually have a common outer cover which may be an electric portion of the cable. In communication cables, an insulated conductor or combination of electric conductors that are insulated from each other. A shield is usually provided. Further, an assembly of one or more conductors within an enveloping protective sheath, constructed to allow use of the conductors separately or in groups, such as a coaxial cable or optical cable.

CABLE* (CLASS 187)
A flaccid, elongated, flexible element which can transmit force only when under tension (e.g., rope, wire, chain).

CAIBE (CLASS 438)
Chemically assisted ion beam etching

CALCULATING OPERATION: (CLASS 700)
Arithmetic and or some limited logic operations performed upon or with signals representing numbers or values.

CALCULATING OPERATIONS (CLASS 701)
Arithmetic and/or some limited logic operations performed upon or with signals representing numbers or values.

CALCULATING OPERATIONS (CLASS 702)
Arithmetic or some limited logic operations performed upon or with signals representing numbers or values.

CALCULATING OPERATIONS (CLASS 705)
Arithmetic or some limited logic operations performed upon or with signals representing numbers or values.

CALCULATION OPERATIONS (CLASS 708)
Arithmetic or some limited logic operations performed upon or with signals representing numbers or values. These include arithmetic and related logic operations. A related logic operation is one that is associated with arithmetic computations.

CALL ADDRESS SIGNAL (CLASS 379)
An electrical representation of a called terminal designation (i.e., telephone number) which controls switching apparatus to establish a connection from a calling terminal.

CAM, ECCENTRIC (CLASS 269)
A rotatable, pivotal or rockable member having a contour, which contour is not uniformly concentric with the pivotal or rotational axis of the member, and which contour, as it moves with respect to said axis, imparts a to-and-fro movement to a follower element bearing against said contour. The movement of said follower element, as the point of mutual contact between the member and the element shifts along the contour, is thus prescribed by the configuration of said contour with respect to the axis of rotation. The contour may be a modification of a peripheral or radial surface with respect to the pivotal or rotational axis or a configured groove, ridge or slot lying in the general plane of either surface. Thus, the effective movement of a follower element, caused by pivoting or rocking the cam member, is measurable along lines normal to the member axis or parallel to the member axis. The follower element is usually mounted for sliding or pivoting movement with respect to the cam member. In some instances, the contour, referred to above, is part of the follower element. In this class, the terms "cam" and "eccentric" are used interchangeably. See (3) Note under subclass 165 and (1) Note under subclass 229 for wedge adjustment and wedge actuating means.

CAMERA (CLASS 396)
A camera is a device which, when actuated, uses light to record an image of an object which may be chemically developable to become visible. It generally includes (a) a light-tight enclosure, (b) a lens for forming an image of an object at an image plane, (c) a holder for a photographic medium at the image plane, (d) a device to control the light flux reaching the photographic medium, and (e) an opaque device selectively operable to pass light to a photographic medium for a period of time. See References to Other Classes, above (e.g., Classes 250 and 378), for information regarding picture-making devices of diverse energy spectra.

CAMERA STRUCTURE (CLASS 396)
Camera structure is that subcombination of a camera not otherwise provided for in another class.

CAMERA, MOTION PICTURE (CLASS 352)
A device for photographically recording periodically a series of images of an object upon a single actuation.

CAPACITANCE (CLASS 334)
The property of a capacitor to store and hold an electric charge and which is equivalent to the ratio of the equivalent charge stored in the capacitor to the resultant change of potential.

CAPACITOR (CLASS 257)
A component used in electrical and electronic circuits which stores a charge of electricity, usually for very brief periods of time, with the ability to rapidly charge and discharge. A capacitor is usually considered a passive component since it does not rectify, amplify, or switch and because charge carriers do not undergo energy level changes therein, although some active solid-state devices function as voltage variable capacitors.

CAPACITOR (CLASS 320)
An electrical energy storage device consisting essentially of two electrically conductive surfaces (e.g., plates, electrodes, etc.) separated by an insulator or dielectric (e.g., air, paper, mica glass, plastic, oil, etc.), whereby an electric charge, in the form of a direct voltage between said conductive surfaces, can be either stored on said surfaces or released therefrom to a load. "Plural capacitors" include a combination or association of two or more structurally dependent, or independent, capacitor units.

CAPACITOR (CLASS 334)
That property of a system of conductors and dielectrics used to secure an appreciable capacitance by allowing the storage of electricity when a potential difference exists between the conductors. There must be at least two or more conductors separated by a dielectric.

CAPACITOR (CLASS 438)
A component used in electrical and electronic circuits which stores a charge of electricity, usually for very brief periods of time, with the ability to rapidly charge and discharge. A capacitor is usually considered a passive component since it does not rectify, amplify, or switch and because charge carriers do not undergo energy level changes therein, although some active solid state devices function as voltage variable capacitors.

CAPPING (CLASS 164)
Intentionally stopping the rimming action in steel after completion of teeming.

CARBOCYCLIC (CLASS 260)
Denotes the presence of one or more rings, none of which is a heterocyclic or a nitrocyclic ring, of which the ring members of at least one ring are all carbons.

CARBOCYCLIC (CLASS 514)
This term denotes a ring or ring system where all ring members are carbons.

CARBOCYCLIC (CLASS 532)
This term denotes a ring or ring system where all ring members are carbons.

CARBOHYDRATE (CLASS 426)
Compound, the monomeric units of which contain at least five carbon atoms, and their reaction products wherein the carbon skeleton of carbohydrate unit is not destroyed. Alcohols and acids corresponding to carbohydrates, such as, sorbitol ascorbic acid, or mannonic acid are not considered as being carbohydrates.

CARBOHYDRATE (CLASS 977)
Polyhydroxy aldehydes or ketones which frequently have the empirical formula (CH2O)n and their derivatives, frequently termed saccharides; common forms are monosaccharides, oligosaccharides, and polysaccharides.

CARBOHYDRATE A (CLASS 430)
polyhydroxy mono-aldehyde and a polyhydroxy mono-ketone, generally having the formula C (H2O) and substances which are hydrolyzed to these. The term includes cellulose, starch, dextran, and sugar.

CARBOHYDRATE DERIVATIVE (CLASS 520)
Denotes reaction products of carbohydrates wherein the carbon skeleton of the carbohydrate is not destroyed. Included herein are cellulose nitrate, cellulose acetate, cellulose ethers, viscose, cellulose xanthate, chitin, etc.

CARBOHYDRATES (CLASS 520)
Denotes polyhydroxy aldehydes (i.e., aldoses) and polyhydroxy ketones (i.e., ketoses) of the empirical formula Cx(H2O)x where x is five or more; and substances hydrolyzable to said polyhydroxy (aldehydes or ketones). Included herein for example are the following: (a) monosaccharide sugars such as pentoses (e.g., arabinose, arabinulose, etc.) hexoses (e.g., glucose, levulose, etc.) and the heptoses (e.g., mannoheptose, etc.); (b) disaccharides (e.g., lactose, maltose, sucrose, cellobiose, etc.); (c) trisaccharides (e.g., raffinose, etc.); (d) polysaccharides (e.g., starches, celluloses, dextrins, hemicelluloses, glycogen, insulin, etc.); (e) complex polysaccharides (e.g., gum arabic, pectins, etc.). Excluded herefrom are lignin, tannin, and derivatives thereof. Also excluded are the simple "triose" (i.e., glyceradehyde di-hydroxy acetone) or "tetrose" (i.e., erythrose, threose and keto tetroses) sugars since these sugars have less than five carbons; such materials are treated as polyhydroxy (aldehydes or ketones).

CARBON (CLASS 428)
Inorganic material. (Nonstructural or Composition)

CARBONACEOUS MATERIAL (CLASS 201)
Any solid material (mixture or compound) other than an inorganic carbonate which contains carbon or carbon containing compounds such as coke or wood.

CARBONYLIC (CLASS 260)
Denotes the presence of the carbonyl group, C=O.

CARBOXAMIDO (CLASS 510)
Denotes a substituent wherein a trivalent nitrogen atom is single bonded to a carbonyl (-C(=O)-) group.

CARBOXYL (Carboxylic Acid) (CLASS 510)
Denotes the presence of a -C(=O)OH group.

CARBOXYLIC (CLASS 424)
Denotes the presence of a moiety.

CARBOXYLIC ACID OR DERIVATIVE (CLASS 520)
A. A carboxylic acid denotes the carboxyl group, represented as -COOH or -C(=O)OH, bonded to: (1) a carbon atom that is not double-bonded to sulfur, selenium, or tellurium, or triple bonded to nitrogen; (2) hydrogen; or (3) [-C(O=)-]n, where n is an integer (e.g., oxalic acid, etc.). A carboxylic acid derivative is limited to: 1. nitride; 2. carboxylic acid ester; 3. carboxylic acid anhydride; 4. carboxylic acid salt; 5. carboxylic acid amide; 6. carboxylic acid imide; 7. carboxylic acid lactam; 8. carboxylic acid halide; and 9. lactone. B. A carboxylic acid anhydride denotes the basic structure -C(=O)-O-C(=O)-, the carbons of which may independently be bonded to: (1) hydrogen; (2) a carbon atom that is not double bonded to sulfur, selenium, or tellurium; or (3) [-C(=O)-]n, where n is an integer. In either of (2) or (3), supra, the -C(=O)-O-C(=O)- group may be part of a ring. C. A carboxylic acid ester denotes the structure -C(=O)-O-C-, where the carbon atom bonded to the -O- of the -C(=O)-O- group may not be double bonded to chalcogen (i.e., oxygen, sulfur, selenium, or tellurium), or triple bonded to nitrogen, and the carbonyl carbon of the -C(=O)-O-C- group may be bonded to (1) hydrogen; (2) a carbon atom that is not double bonded to sulfur, selenium, or tellurium, or triple bonded to nitrogen; or (3) [-C(=O)-]n, where n is an integer. D. A nitride denotes the structure -CbN bonded to carbon, which carbon may not be double bonded to chalcogen (i.e., oxygen, sulfur, selenium, or tellurium), or triple bonded to nitrogen. E. A carboxylic acid amide denotes the structure -C(=O)-NH2, where substitution may be made for the hydrogens, and the carbonyl carbon may be bonded to (1) hydrogen; (2) a carbon atom that is not double bonded to sulfur, selenium, or tellurium, or triple bonded to nitrogen; or (3) [-C(=O)-]n, where n is an integer. F. A carboxylic acid halide denotes the structure -C(=O)-hal, where hal is halogen and the carbonyl carbon may be bonded to (1) hydrogen; (2) [-C(=O)-]n, where n is an integer; or (3) a carbon atom that is not double bonded to sulfur, selenium, or tellurium, or triple bonded to carbon. G. The imide of a dicarboxylic acid is a heterocyclic ring having as ring members the group -C(=O)-NH-C(=O)-, where substitution may be made for hydrogen; all remaining ring members are carbon atoms. H. The lactam of a carboxylic acid is a heterocyclic ring having as ring members the group -NH-C(=O)-, where substitution may be made for hydrogen; all remaining ring members are carbon atoms. I. The lactone of a carboxylic acid is a heterocyclic ring having as ring members the group -C(=O)-O-; all remaining ring members are carbon atoms, and the carbon atoms bonded to either the carbon or oxygen or the -C(=O)O- group may not themselves be double bonded to chalcogen (i.e., oxygen, sulfur, selenium, or tellurium). J. A carboxylic acid salt denotes the structure -C(=O)-O-X, where X is a cation and ionic bonding exists between the cation, X, and the -C(=O)O- group. The carbon of the -C(=O)O- group may be bonded to: (1) hydrogen; (2) a carbon atom that is not double bonded to sulfur, selenium, or tellurium, or triple bonded to nitrogen; or (3) [-C(=O)-]n, where n is an integer. In the above definitions of carboxylic acids and their derivations, certain derivations may technically fit into more than one derivative grouping. A lactone, for example, is a species of an ester, and a lactam is a species of an amide. Compounds that are themselves multifunctional (i.e., possess more than one functional group) are classified on the basis of the first appearing functional group in the hierarchy. A polycarboxylic reactant requires the presence of at least two carboxylic acid groups, or of at least one carboxylic acid group and at least one carboxylic acid derivative, or at least two identical carboxylic acid derivatives, or at least two different carboxylic acid derivatives. A cyclic carboxylic anhydride having the group -C(=O)-O-C(=O)- as members of a ring is considered as a polycarboxylic acid. Compounds having both a cyclic anhydride group and a free carboxyl (-COOH) group are considered as tricarboxylic acids. An example is trimellitic anhydride, which is shown as Figure 1 at the end of the "Carboxylic Acid or Derivative" definition. A compound containing two cyclic anhydride groups is considered a tetracarboxylic acid. An example is pyromellitic dianhydride, which is shown in Figure 2 at the end of the "Carboxylic Acid or Derivative" definition.

CARBURIZING (Carbonizing) (CLASS 164)
Introducing carbon into ferrometals by heating above the transformation temperature range while in contact with carbonaceous material that may be solid, liquid, or gaseous.

CARBURIZING (CLASS 148)
A process wherein a metal substrate is treated with an externally supplied source of carbon resulting in the carburization of the metal by chemical reaction or diffusion.

CARCASS (CLASS 452)
Includes the dead body of either a land or marine animal.

CARRIAGE (CLASS 400)
A mechanism for supporting a record-medium* or for supporting a type-head-carrier*, which mechanism is provided with means to effect relative movement between the record-medium and a type-head-carrier that is at the print-point*, the movement occurring along a line that is parallel to the print-line*. A "carriage-feed" means effects carriage movement in the direction that causes character* symbols to be imprinted in succession, thus "carriage feed" also effects character-space* and word-space* distances. In most typewriters used for typing a European language said direction is from left to right, but there are some typewriters capable of imprinting successive characters from right to left even though the words will be read from left to right, and there are other typewriters intended to imprint successive characters from right to left because the words will be read from right to left. In any event, the carriage-feed direction is always the direction that causes characters to be imprinted in succession. In some typewriters the record-medium is held to a platen that is mounted on a carriage, and the "platen carriage" (together with the record-medium) is moved relative to the main frame of the typewriter. Each successively actuated type-member* is impressed at a print-point that is stationary relative to the main frame. The platen-carriage (e.g., right to left) is opposite to the direction in which successive characters are imprinted and read (e.g., left to right). (The directions mentioned apply except as noted above.) In some typewriters the record-medium is held to a platen that does not move during the imprinting of a print-line. The type-member is on a type-head* that is on a type-head-carrier that is mounted on a carriage, and the type-head carriage is moved relative to the main frame of the typewriter. Each successively actuated type-member is impressed at a print-point that is moved relative to the main frame. The "type-head carriage" movement (e.g., left to right) is in the direction in which successive characters are imprinted and read (e.g., left to right). In both forms of typewriter noted above, the term carriage feed is applied to movement of the carriage in the direction that effects imprinting of successive characters and words*. Thus, for a platen-carriage typewriter, carriage feed is usually from right to left (but note the exception above), whereas for a type-head-carriage typewriter, carriage feed is usually from left to right. Either typewriter is also capable of carriage reversal, which is in the direction opposite to carriage feed, and is used for "carriage return" (e.g., to start a new print-line) or is used for carriage backspace (e.g., to move a carriage a distance equivalent of one or more character-spaces in a reverse direction).

CARRIAGE-RACK (CLASS 400)
A bar having teeth or notches along one of its sides, which bar is affixed to a carriage*, and which teeth or notches cooperate with a pawl* or a pinion gear to enable or cause movement of the bar and the carriage to which it is affixed. There may be provision for adjustment of the bar relative to the carriage, but the adjustment is usually made at the time of manufacture of the typewriter, or may be made subsequently during a period of time when the typewriter is not being used for typing. When a carriage-rack cooperates with a pawl, it acts as a ratchet*, and for a discussion of how a pawl and ratchet operates as a carriage-feed mechanism, see the definition of pawl in this Glossary,

CARRIER (CLASS 226)
(n) As used in this class, a member on which a material engaging part is slidingly or rotatably (including pivotally) mounted, which member entirely supports the part against gravity while allowing relative movement between the member and the part. This term is applied only to that member of a device which is immediately connected to the material-engaging part. A member can be a complex of parts which move integrally together.

CARRIER (CLASS 257)
A mobile free electron or hole.

CARRIER (CLASS 329)
An electrical or electromagnetic repetitious sinusoidal wave.

CARRIER (CLASS 332)
Is an electrical or electromagnetic repetitious sinusoidal wave.

CARRIER (CLASS 355)
(a) The element that contains the original image to be imaged onto a receiver. The carrier is commonly a photographic negative, but may be a positive, a document, a book page, etc.; and (b) a substance in electrophotographic developer which conveys a toner material to a copy substrate but which does not, itself, become a part of the developed copy.

CARRIER (CLASS 406)
An auxiliary device for use in a fluid current conveyor comprising a container for carrying material or articles while being conveyed through the fluid current conveyor.

CARRIER (CLASS 416)
A Load bearing structure (e.g., hub, etc.) which mounts one or more working members* and which, at least in part, partakes of the motion of the member.

CARRIER CONCENTRATION (CLASS 257)
The number of electrical charge carriers in a given volume, usually a cubic centimeter, of semiconductor material.

CARRIER, MOTION PICTURE (CLASS 352)
The vehicle for the individual pictures of a motion picture series, generally a flexible strip.

CASCADE AMPLIFIER (CLASS 330)
A series of amplifiers wherein the input for each amplifier except the first (to which the electric signal source is connected) is coupled from the output of the prior amplifier.

CASE HARDENING (CLASS 148)
A term most often applied to carburizing or nitriding processes which result in a hardened surface on the workpiece.

CASE-SHIFT (CLASS 400)
Case-shift is the relative movement between a record-medium* and a type-face* or a type-die* that is at the print-point*, which movement is effected by pressing a case-shift key* concurrently with the pressing of a character* key. In most typewriters, selection of which character is to be imprinted in sequence is made by selection of the character keys. In a typewriter with a case-shift, a choice of upper-case* (i.e., "CAPITAL" letter) or lower-case* (i.e., "small" letter) form of the selected letter is possible by concurrently pressing or not pressing the case-shift key. Analogous choice of other characters that appear on the various character keys is also possible with the case-shift key. In some typewriters case-shift is effected by moving into one of two positions (or in other typewriters one of three positions) any of (a) a type-bar-segment*, or (b) a platen, or (c) a type-head* that carries at least two fixedly related type-face elements; in all of these the movement occurs in a plane substantially parallel to the plane occupied by the type-face at the print-point. In some typewriters a type-head is on a type-head-carrier* and includes a type-set-assemblage* thereon, and in such typewriters case-shift is effected by moving the type-head so that the chosen type-face (i.e., upper-case or lower-case) will be impacted against the record-medium. In some typewriters, case-shift may also be used to imprint a character in a different font* or a character in a different language for specialized uses.

CASING (CLASS 166)
A pipe which lines all or a portion of the wall of a well. The casing may be adjacent the wall of the well for only a part of its length and lie within another casing section for the remainder of its length. The casing usually is of metal and is used with cement between it and the well wall. The casing is intended to form the permanent lining of the well.

CASING (CLASS 175)
A tube which is introduced in a preformed bore and forms a lining for the bore.

CASING (CLASS 313)
A container or enclosure for a lamp or discharge device, or a part thereof. See Envelope above.

CASING (CLASS 415)
A member which cooperates with a runner member and provides a flow path for the working fluid. This member may also be called a curb in the art literature.

CASTING (CLASS 065)
Forming a glass preform by flowing molten glass in the form of a stream into or onto molds, rolls or tables. (Teeming is synonymous to casting).

CASTING (CLASS 164)
The formation of an article by pouring or forcing molten metal into a mold or die and permitting it to solidify.

CASTING (CLASS 264)
A process of molding or forming wherein impressions are made with fluent or molten materials as by pouring into a mold with hardening or setting of said material in said mold.

CASTING (CLASS 425)
Forming a preform by pouring fluent stock onto or into a shaping surface. Synonym: Teeming.

CATALYST (CLASS 423)
A substance which either increases or decreases the speed of a chemical reaction without itself undergoing a permanent change.

CATALYST (CLASS 502)
An agent which affects or effects a chemical reaction by its presence in the reaction mass (other than by dissolving or dispersing the reactants) generally being recoverable from the products as if it did not enter into the reaction and merely provided the impetus for reaction of other materials. While it was originally thought that a catalyst did not enter the reaction and instead provided sites at which the reactants, per se, interacted, it is understood now that at least some transitory intermediates may involve the catalyst. The catalyst, however does not contribute substance to the desired final product even though it may remain inseparable from such product.

CATALYST (CLASS 588)
A substance which either increases or decreases the speed of a chemical reaction.

CATALYZE (CLASS 502)
Affecting, effecting, promoting, or initiating a reaction by being present-generally by presenting a contact surface and usually recoverable from the product in essentially unchanged form and operating other than by merely acting as a solvent. The strict classical concept of a catalyst is not rigidly adhered to now and the catalyst may disappear, change or be included as an incidental moiety in the final product. A catalyst may inhibit one reaction while promoting or allowing another reaction but an agent strictly preventing or retarding a reaction is a preservative for Class 252 Compositions, subclasses 380+. Examples of these retardants or inhibitors are anti-oxidant and anti-knock compositions. An agent that encourages a reaction by dispersing the reactants such as a more effective solvent is not a catalyst. A catalyst may be gaseous, liquid or solid.

CATARACT CORRECTION LENS (CLASS 351)
A lens, usually with cylindrical correction, to optically compensate for diminution of vision or opacity of the lens of the eye.

CATEGORY (CLASS 725)
Any of several fundamental and distinct classes to which entities or concepts belong. Also, a division within a system of classification.

CATHANODE (CLASS 313)
An electrode designed to serve as an anode with respect to a cathode and to be heated by the discharge so that another surface of the electrode emits electrons to a second anode. See subclass 305 for discharge devices having a cathanode.

CATHODE (CLASS 313)
An electrode which acts as the negative device. In some discharge devices, such as spark gaps, there is no difference in structure between the cathode and anode. Consequently, the use of the words "cathode" and "anode" have been avoided except where there is some significance in structure between the two electrodes.

CATHODE IMPEDANCE (CLASS 330)
The impedance from the cathode of an electronic tube to ground or a reference potential.

CATHODE OR CATHODE ELECTRODE (CLASS 330)
The negative electrode of the two electrodes of an electronic tube between which an electric discharge occurs (for negative charge carrier particles); in a vacuum tube the electrode which emits the electrons and is negatively charged with respect to the electrode which collects the electrons.

CATHODE RAY DEVICE (CLASS 313)
A discharge device having means for forming the electric discharge into a restricted beam or ray, usually pencil-like.

CATHODE-HEATER (CLASS 330)
A filament in proximity to an indirectly heated cathode with terminals designed to receive a source of power to heat the cathode to its electron emitting temperature.

CATIONIC SUBSTITUENT (CLASS 510)
Denotes that portion of an organic compound which is positively charged in an aqueous solution at a neutral pH (i.e., pH=7) and is attached to the portion of the molecule of higher molecular weight by covalent bonding. Examples of common cationic substituents include primary, secondary, or tertiary amino groups, as well as quaternary ammonium substituents.

CAVITY (CLASS 072)
(DIE CAVITY) A passageway closed at one end; a chamber or blind hole having at least one work-shape-imposing portion of closed perimeter definable in a plane normal to the direction of relative motion of a co-acting tool or work forcer, or of the disclosed flow of work. See "Orifice" and "Passageway".

CAVITY (CLASS 428)
A hole or a hollow place in a body. (Structural)

CB JUNCTION (CLASS 257)
The collector-base junction of a bipolar transistor.

CBE (CLASS 117)
Chemical Beam Epitaxy*.

CBIC (CLASS 438)
Complementary bipolar IC

CBKR (CLASS 438)
Cross bridge Kelvin resistor (test structure)

CCB (CLASS 438)
Controlled collapse bonding

CCC (CLASS 438)
Corrugated capacitor cell

CCD (CLASS 438)
Charge coupled device

CDE (CLASS 438)
Chemical dry etching

CDI (CLASS 438)
Collector diffusion isolation

CEL (CLASS 438)
Contrast enhancement layer

CELL (CLASS 257)
An individual integrated circuit element located on a large, or master chip of, semiconductor material.

CELL (CLASS 320)
Short for, or used interchangeably with, a voltaic cell only in this class.

CELL (CLASS 428)
A closed cavity (which may be empty or full) in a component*. (Structural)

CELL* (CLASS 349)
For the purpose of this class, a cell is the minimum combination of elements necessary to physically contain an entire liquid crystal layer given a stimulus or excitation. In a matrix addressed liquid crystal device, a single pixel is not a cell.

CELLULAR (CLASS 725)
Of, relating to, or consisting of cells. In a radio frequency system, that which characterizes a system in which a geographical area is divided into small sections, each served by a transmitter of limited range so that any available radio frequency channel can be used in different parts of the area simultaneously.

CELLULOSIC (CLASS 428)
A carbohydrate material derived from the structural matter of plant life, usually from the stems. The term includes lignocellulose (e.g., wood and bark) relatively pure cellulose (e.g., cotton and linen) and chemically modified forms of cellulose as cellophane, pyroxylin, viscose and rayon. While pyroxylin may be plasticized with minor amounts of camphor and/or castor oil, for purposes of classification, pyroxylin is considered cellulosic. (Nonstructural or Composition)

CEMENTATION (CLASS 075)
A process of recovering a free metal from solution wherein a more electropositive free metal displaces a less electropositive metal from solution as a free metal while the more electropositive metal goes into solution in ionic form.

CENTRAL CHAMBER (CLASS 166)
A generic term covering both a central conduit, as defined below, and a receptacle for bodily transport of fluid material from inside the well to the top of the well or bodily transport of material from the top of the well for discharge at a point in the well. In a well device the central chamber is considered to be the primary locus from which or to which fluid is moved. For example, the "central chamber" in a tester is the sample chamber receiving the test fluid, whether this be a receptacle or a tubing, while the "central chamber" in a liquid discharging washer is the primary place from which liquid flows, whether this be a tubing or a receptacle.

CENTRAL CONDUIT (CLASS 166)
Any passage forming conduit which extends from the top of the well into the well and is positioned within another conduit. The central conduit may be, for example, a string of tubing positioned within another tubing or within the casing, or it may be a string of casing positioned within the well bore.

CENTRIFUGE (CLASS 210)
A process or means in which a liquid is revolved about an axis at such a number of revolutions per unit of time that the apparent weight of constituents increases to a point where the constituents tend to concentrate in strata similar to gravity-induced separation based on relative densities.

CER (CLASS 438)
Contact end resistor (test structure)

CERAMIC (CLASS 428)
Clay containing, therefore silicon containing. (Nonstructural or Composition)

CERAMIC (CLASS 501)
Inorganic compositions which are heat treated to harden them during their manufacture or subsequent use by firing, calcining, sintering, or fusion of at least a portion of the inorganic material, including glass compositions, fired clay compositions which form, e.g., porcelain or brick, and refractories. Such materials typically, but not necessarily, include earthy materials, such as metal (and especially mixed metal) silicates.

CERDIP (CLASS 438)
ceramic DIP

CHAFF (CLASS 460)
These are seed coverings and small stem pieces which are separated from seed and threshed grain during threshing or processing operation.

CHAFFER (CLASS 460)
A moving device having lips, loovers or similar means that separates the chaff from threshed grain or seed.

CHAIN (CLASS 514)
This term denotes a plurality of atoms which connect specified groups or atoms. The atoms of the chain must be nonionically attached to each other and to the specified groups or atoms. If the chain may not include any ring members it will be designated as acyclic. When the chain may include ring members the title will state that the chain may include a ring. The chain ends where it attaches to the specified groups or atoms and does not include any part of them. The chain may have substituents but the substituents are not part of the chain.

CHAIN (CLASS 532)
This term denotes a plurality of atoms which connect specified groups or atoms. The atoms of the chain must be nonionically attached to each other and to the specified groups or atoms. If the chain may not include any ring members it will be designated as acyclic. When the chain may include ring members the title will state that the chain may include a ring. The chain ends where it attaches to the specified groups or atoms and does not include any part of them. The chain may have substituents but the substituents are not part of the chain.

CHALCEDONY (CLASS 117)
Microcrystalline form of quartz; usually milky or grayish in color.

CHALCOGEN (CLASS 423)
Also known as chalcogenide(s), the elements oxygen, sulfur, selenium, tellurium and polonium.

CHALCOGEN (CLASS 588)
Also known as chalcogenides, specifically O, S, Se, or Te.

CHALCOGEN (CLASS 987)
Limited to oxygen (O), sulfur (S), selenium (Se), or tellurium (Te).

CHANGE-KEY (CLASS 070)
That key designed for operation of an individually distinct lock operating mechanism embodying a specific combination or design.

CHANNEL (CLASS 257)
A path for conducting current between a source and drain of a field effect transistor.

CHANNEL (CLASS 373)
A hollow loop, or ring which will contain material to be heated, and which permits the insertion of a core of iron to improve the coupling between a primary coil and a secondary in the loop, or ring.

CHANNEL (CLASS 438)
A path for conducting current between a source and drain of a field effect transistor.

CHANNEL (CLASS 725)
A single path for transmitting electric signals, usually in distinction from other parallel paths. A band of frequencies. Note: The word "path" is to be interpreted in a broad sense to include separation by frequency division or time division. The term "channel" may signify either a one-way path, providing transmission in one direction only, or a two-way path, providing transmission in two directions.

CHANNEL LENGTH EFFECTS (CLASS 257)
Operating characteristics of FETs which depend on the length (distance between source and drain) of the channel regions. Such effects include switching speed change and threshold voltage change with channel length change.

CHANNEL PINCH-OFF REGION (CLASS 257)
The location in a current channel portion of a field effect transistor (FET) where the current is reduced to a minimum value due to its diameter being reduced to a minimum.

CHANNEL PINCH-OFF REGION (CLASS 438)
The location in a current channel portion of a field effect transistor (FET) where the current is reduced to a minimum value due to its diameter being reduced to a minimum.

CHANNEL STOP (CLASS 257)
Means for limiting channel formation in a semiconductor device by surrounding the affected area with a ring of highly doped, low resistivity semiconductor material. In a field effect transistor, it is a region of highly doped material of the same type as the lightly doped substrate used to prevent leakage paths along the chip surface from developing. Also referred to as "chanstop."

CHANNEL STOP (CLASS 438)
Means for limiting channel formation in a semiconductor device by surrounding the affected area with a ring of highly doped, low resistivity semiconductor material. In a field effect transistor, it is a region of highly doped material of the same type as the lightly doped substrate used to prevent leakage paths along the chip surface from developing. Also referred to as "chanstop."

CHANNEL WIDTH EFFECTS (CLASS 257)
Operating characteristics of FETs which depend on the width (horizontal distance perpendicular to channel length and parallel to upper surface of device) of the channel. Such effects include conductance and threshold voltage change with channel width change.

chanstop (CLASS 438)
channel stop isolation structure

CHAPLET (CLASS 164)
A device for holding a core in place.

CHAR (CLASS 201)
The generic term applied to the carbonaceous residue from a thermolytic distillation of any carbonaceous material. It encompasses such terms as bone black, charcoal and coke.

CHAR (CLASS 202)
The generic term applied to the carbonaceous residue from a thermolytic distillation of any carbonaceous material. It encompasses such terms as bone black, charcoal and coke.

CHAR (CLASS 502)
Carbonaceous reside from pyrolysis of organic material generally of a hard burned pitch appearance.

CHARACTER (CLASS 400)
A single symbol imprinted on a record-medium* by a type-member* and intended to be read by the human eye, or intended to be "read" by a mechanical or electrical scanner, for the purpose of conveying intelligence to the reader (i.e., human reader or mechanical "reader"). It forms one of the elements needed to form a word*. In most typewriters a character is formed by impressing a single type-member against a record-medium, usually via an inking means. However, a single character may also be formed by impressing a plurality of different type-members either simultaneously or successively in the same zone or area of the record-medium. A character may be (a) one of the letters in an alphabet, either upper-case* (i.e., "CAPITAL" letter), or lower-case* (i.e., "small" letter), or (b) one of the numeral digits (i.e., "0" through "9"), or (c) a punctuation mark [e.g., comma (,), colon (:), etc.], or (d) one of a variety of signs and symbols incorporated into a typewriter intended for general usage [e.g., dollar sign ($), ampersand symbol (&), etc.]. The number or variety of characters that a particular typewriter may imprint is limited only by the size of the typewriter and the area allotted to the key-board* and the type-members of that typewriter.

CHARACTER-SPACE (CLASS 400)
Character-space is the distance that the carriage* or the record-medium* is moved to effect the separation of one imprinted character* from a subsequently imprinted character of the same word*. In most alphabets the width of one character (i.e., the distance that it extends along the print-line*) differs from the width of another character. In many typewriters the character-space distances are in equal increments of carriage feed. Due to the fact that successively imprinted characters have different widths, the spaces between the successive characters are unequal. To compensate for different widths, some typewriters are provided with mechanism to vary the carriage feed. This mechanism causes the carriage feed to be proportional to the width of the character imprinted by a type-face*. The unequal increments of carriage feed produced by this mechanism results in equal spaces between successively imprinted characters, thereby improving the uniformity and appearance of the typing.

CHARACTERISTIC (CLASS 329)
An attribute associated with the size or shape of a wave or signal. Examples are amplitude, frequency, or phase of a sine wave and repetition rate, position, amplitude, or width of a nonsine wave.

CHARACTERISTIC (CLASS 332)
Is an attribute associated with the size or shape of a wave or signal. Examples are amplitude, frequency, or phase of a sine wave and repetition rate, position, amplitude or width of a nonsine wave.

CHARACTERISTIC CURVE (CLASS 257)
A graph showing the relationship between two or more changing parameters, e.g., current and voltage of an electronic device.

CHARACTERISTIC IMPEDANCE (CLASS 333)
The impedance which a long line or a long line element would have if it were infinitely long. A long line which is terminated in its characteristic impedance is not resonant.

CHARGE (CLASS 149)
As used herein refers to a mixture of ingredients producing a composition of this class or a definite quantity of shapeless or structureless material forming a composition of this class; or at least two compounds or compositions or any mixtures of these associated together or composited but in an unmixed condition, e.g., a primary explosive associated but not intermixed with a secondary explosive, or those compositions including only nominal structure or form.

CHARGE (CLASS 373)
The material heated by the furnace.

CHARGE CARRIER (CLASS 257)
A mobile conduction electron or hole in a semiconductor.

CHARGE CARRIER (CLASS 438)
A mobile conduction electron or hole in a semiconductor.

CHARGE CARRIER PARTICLE (CLASS 330)
A charged particle of matter involved in a flow of space current (electric discharge) and by means of which such current flows (current flow other than an electromagnetic wave propagated in open or confined space). Such charge carrier particles may be ions of a gas or charged atomic particles such as electrons.

CHARGE CONFINEMENT (CLASS 257)
Restriction of electrical charge carriers, e.g., electrons or holes, to specified locations, e.g., by quantum wells, gate electrode potentials, etc.

CHARGE CONFINEMENT (CLASS 438)
Restriction of electrical charge carriers (e.g., electrons or holes) to specified locations (e.g., by quantum wells, gate electrode potentials, etc.).

CHARGE GAS, GAS, OR SYSTEM FLUID (CLASS 096)
(Terms used in Class 55 subclass titles and definitions). These terms are used synonymously and mean the inlet mixture of gas carrying therein solids or fluids, the mixture during separation, or a gaseous constituent after separation.

CHARGE INJECTION DEVICE (CLASS 257)
A field effect device in which storage sites for packets of electric charge are induced at or below the surface of an active solid-state device by an electric field applied to the device and wherein carrier potential energy per unit charge minima are established at a given storage site and such charge packets are injected into the device substrate or into a data bus. This type device differs from a charge transfer device in that, in the latter, charge is transferred to adjacent charge storage sites in a serial manner, whereas, in a charge injection device, the charge is injected in a non-serial manner to the device substrate or to a data bus.

CHARGE INJECTION DEVICE (CLASS 438)
A field effect device in which storage sites for packets of electric charge are induced at or below the surface of an active solid-state device by an electric field applied to the device and wherein carrier potential energy per unit charge minima are established at a given storage site and such charge packets are injected into the device substrate or into a data bus. This type device differs from a charge transfer device in that, in the latter, charge is transferred to adjacent charge storage sites in a serial manner, whereas, in a charge injection device, the charge is injected in a nonserial manner to the device substrate or to a data bus.

CHARGE TRANSFER DEVICE (CLASS 257)
A semiconductor device in which discrete packets of electrical charge are transferred from one location to another. Examples of charge transfer devices include charge-coupled devices (CCDs) and bucket-brigade devices (BBDs).

CHARGE-COUPLED DEVICE (CLASS 257)
A charge transfer device in which all carriers (electrons or holes) are transferred from one storage site to the next upon application of a shifting voltage.

CHARGE: BATTERY OR CELL (CLASS 320)
The act of adding electrical energy (e.g., supplying current, etc.) into a battery or cell from a diverse source of electrical energy to increase the amount of useful and available chemical energy stored in the battery or cell; or, the amount of chemical energy stored in a battery or cell that is available for useful conversion to electrical energy for supplying an electric load.

CHARGE: CAPACITOR (CLASS 320)
The act of applying an electric potential across the electrodes or plates of a capacitor from a diverse source of electrical energy to increase the amount of useful and available electrical energy stored in the capacitor, or the amount of energy stored in a capacitor that is available for release to usefully supply electrical energy to an electric load.

CHARGING (CLASS 373)
The function of supplying a charge to a furnace.

CHARGING CIRCUIT (CLASS 320)
The electric circuit or path that extends from a charging source to a battery, cell, or capacitor to be charged.

CHARGING SOURCE (CLASS 320)
The immediate source from which electric energy is derived for addition into a battery, cell, or capacitor, where the polarity of the source is such as to cause current to flow in opposition to the normal polarity of the battery, cell, or capacitor, if the latter is polarized, and may be, for example: (1) a mere charging circuit; (2) means for collecting atmospheric, parasitic, or other stray electric charge or currents; (3) means for converting electrical energy having one or more particular electrical characteristics into electrical energy having a different characteristic (e.g., electrical converters such as a combination alternating current source and rectifier, where the rectifier is considered to be the "immediate source"; (4) means for converting energy, other than electrical, into electric energy (e.g., electrical generator, fuel cell, etc.).

CHARGING SOURCE CONTROL (CLASS 320)
Any control that effects the flow of energy from a charging source, including (a) direct control of the charging source itself or (b) the flow or delivery of energy from the charging source to a load.

CHARTS (CLASS 351)
A light reflecting or transmitting panel with symbols or pictures of varying size for testing the refraction of the eye.

CHEEK (CLASS 164)
The intermediate part of a flask or mold that has more than two parts.

CHEMFET (CLASS 438)
Chemically sensitive FET

CHEMICAL EVOLUTION PROCESS (CLASS 506)
Process using in vitro selection systems that evolve to enrich mixtures of chemical compounds in those components having selected properties. The terminology "directed molecular evolution" is commonly employed when the process is applied to mixtures of macromolecules (e.g., RNA aptamers, etc.). Selected compounds are then amplified ("copied") using biochemical methods (e.g., enzymatic reverse transcription of RNA aptamers to DNA, PCR amplification, and finally retranscription to RNA, etc.). This concept has been adapted to organic chemistry and opened a new branch of combinatorial chemistry named "dynamic combinatorial chemistry" wherein the enrichment in the (usually low-molecular weight) compounds having a selected property results from the equilibration process that carries out a preferential destruction and recycling of unselected compounds.

CHEMICAL FORCE MICROSCOPE (CLASS 977)
Scanning probe microscope with a chemically functionalized tip.

CHEMICAL PROCESS A (CLASS 430)
process involving a chemical reaction or the recitation of chemical composition, compound, etc., in the claims which are involved in a chemical reaction during the process.

CHEMICAL REACTION (CLASS 117)
For purposes of Class 117, chemical reaction is given a broad meaning. The following are included: metathesis; changing the water of hydration; forming intermetallic compounds from constituent elements or from alloys; forming compound semiconductor material from constituent elements; forming ions (ionization) or ionized plasma. Not included are: dissolution of a compound and solidification (e.g. crystallization) of the same compound; a change of phase (e.g., amorphous to single-crystal*); change of crystal phase or form (e.g., face centered cubic to body centered cubic).

CHEMICAL TREATING AGENT (CLASS 520)
Denotes a chemical material which is added to the formed solid polymer and which causes or is present during a process wherein a change in a bond of the polymer is effected. Claims reciting a "chemical treating agent" are classified on the basis of the first-appearing material utilized as part of the chemical agent. No attempt has been made to classify on the basis of functionality of the chemically active material and therefore all materials in a composition are regarded equally (e.g., diluent, reactant, catalyst, etc.). Processes and products which refer to mere cross-linking, curing, or vulcanizing will be classified on the basis of the product treated.

CHILL (CLASS 164)
A piece of metal applied to the casting to hasten the solidification in that area.

CHIP (CLASS 257)
A single crystal substrate of semiconductor material on which one or more active or passive solid-state electronic devices are formed. A chip may contain an integrated circuit. A chip is not normally ready for use until packaged and provided with external connectors.

CHIP (CLASS 438)
A single crystal substrate of semiconductor material on which one or more active or passive solid-state electronic devices are formed. A chip may contain an integrated circuit. A chip is not normally ready for use until packaged and provided with external connectors.

CHIP CARRIER (CLASS 257)
A package with terminals, for solid-state electronic devices, including chips which facilitates handling of the chip during assembly of the chip to other electronic elements.

CHIP CARRIER (CLASS 438)
A package with terminals, for solid-state electronic devices, including chips which facilitates handling of the chip during assembly of the chip to other electronic elements.

CHIP COMPONENT (CLASS 257)
A circuit element (active or passive) for use in microelectronics. Besides integrated circuits, the term includes diodes, transistors, resistors, and capacitors.

CHL (CLASS 438)
Current hugging logic

CHOPPER (CLASS 363)
A device for interrupting current at regular intervals.

CHORD (CLASS 416)
The straight line in a plane normal to the longitudinal axis of a working member* joining the leading and trailing edges of the member*. See Figure I.

CHROMATICITY TEST (CLASS 351)
Determination of the visual sensitivity or adaptation to color.

CHROMATOGRAPHY (CLASS 210)
A process in which a liquid is flowed along a linear path comprising a sorbent, with which the liquid competes in affinity for a constituent of the liquid. The constituent is sorbed from the moving liquid by the relatively immobile sorbent and redissolved by a later passing portion of the liquid until an equilibrium of the sorbing-dissolving step is set up causing the constituent to concentrate in a specific volume of the sorbent and to move along the path of the liquid at a slower rate than such liquid. A comprehensive treatise on chromatography is to be found in Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology 2nd ed. Vol. 5, pp. 413-450.

CHRYSOBERYL (CLASS 117)
Beryllium aluminate; BeO.Al2O3; cat's eye; alexandrite; optionally with up to about 10 wt% chromium oxide and titanium oxide.

CHUTE (CLASS 198)
A structure capable of guiding a gravity induced flow of material therethrough or thereon. While a chute is more often than not an inclined passageway in the form of a trough, it occasionally takes the form of a conduit. Inasmuch as a chute with a gate, especially a chute in the form of a conduit, presents structure closely related to that of a hopper, such structures are distinguished on the basis of whether a storage concept exists (hopper) or does not exist (chute). A receptacle positioned in such manner as to impart the property of gravity induced flow to material contained therein, and, therefore, to be a source of supply to components "downstream" thereof. While it is not essential that the contained material be "stored" for a finite period of time, there should be a concept of supporting it for an interval longer than that required for mere passage therethrough. A hopper has an inlet and an outlet, although the inlet may be merely an open side (of the receptacle). The outlet, however, will have a provision whereby passage of the contents can be controlled (e.g., possibly a conveyor). The provision of chutelike structure integral with the hopper, whereby material is guided into the inlet or out of the outlet, should not be considered as constituting a separate element. (This is in line with what appears to be a basic difference between chutes and hoppers; namely, a chute guides whereas a hopper stores and may guide). "Gravity-induced" is not intended to be construed to exclude those nondriven conveyors which utilize mechanical means (e.g., a vibrator) to start to maintain flow (i.e., bridge breaking).

CID (CLASS 438)
Charge injection device

CIPHER (CLASS 380)
Information concealed by substitution or interchange of text characters for those in the original message.

CIRCUIT (CLASS 250)
A closed or closable conducting path through which, or along which, electric current can travel.

CIRCUIT (CLASS 257)
A number of devices interconnected in a one or more closed paths to perform a desired electrical or electronic function.

CIRCUIT MAKING AND/OR BREAKING (CLASS 320)
Fully establishing and/or fully interrupting the conductivity of an electrical path between two or more points in an electrical circuit by physical movement of electrically conductive elements into and out of physical contact with each other.

CIRCUIT MAKING AND/OR BREAKING DEVICE (CLASS 318)
A device for fully establishing and/or fully interrupting the electrical conductivity of an electrical path or circuit between two or more points in an electrical circuit by relative movement of electrically conductive elements into and/or out of physical contact with each other.

CLADDING BARRIER (CLASS 257)
A higher band gap material which encases a lower band gap material that defines the walls of a quantum well.

CLADDING BARRIER (CLASS 438)
A higher band gap material which encases a lower band gap material that defines the walls of a quantum well.

CLAMP (CLASS 072)
(See "Work-Gripping Clamp" and compare "Blank Holder").

CLAMP COUPLE ELEMENT (CLASS 269)
Structure limited to one jaw* plus the means to adjust* and/or actuate* said jaw relative to a disclosed, but not claimed, coacting jaw.

CLAMSHELL (CLASS 037)
This device is an excavating or handling tool having two similar jaws which close upon material for excavating and open for dumping.

CLASP(*) (CLASS 024)
A securing mechanism or element including two coacting members or member segments having gripping surfaces which engage portions of structure-to-be-secured* on opposite sides in a jawlike manner to thereby (a) prevent or hinder the movement of structure-to-be secured* relative to the surfaces in at least one direction, (b) prevent or hinder the separation of distinct portions of the structure-to-be-secured* from each other, or (c) perform a securement of structure-to-be-secured* by overedge engagement thereof. The gripping surfaces of the coacting members or member segments are intended to be always easily moved into and out of engagement with the structure-to-be-secured* by either direct manual or tool force thereon or actuation of an attached operator*. In addition, both of the coacting members or member segment, when engaging with or disengaging from the structure-to-be-secured*, do not exceed the elastic limit of or destroy any portion of the securing mechanism or element. If the mechanism or element is formed from either a single piece or plural fixedly attached pieces of rigid* material, then the structural shape of the gripping surfaces and the outward force of the compressed structure-to-be-secured* provide the gripping force required above.

CLATHRATES AND INTERCALATES (INCLUSION COMPOUNDS) (CLASS 532)
Clathrates and intercalates (inclusion compounds), per se, are classified hierarchically and subject to the limitations set forth in the compound (element) classes based both on the encapsulant and encapsulate. For example, a clathrate of urea and hydrogen peroxide is classified in Class 564, subclass 32, urea and an organic compound in Class 564, subclass 1.5, dextran and iodine in Class 536, subclass 112, etc. Where a patent does not state that a material is either a clathrate or an intercalate, the assumption is made that the material is either a coated or encapsulated product classified in Class 428, subclasses 402+.

CLAY (CLASS 501)
The naturally occurring earthy materials (or artificial compositions having generally equivalent chemical and physical properties) containing a substantial proportion (30 percent or more) of colloidal particles (under .002mm.), and which becomes plastic when mixed with water and which plastic material is capable of being hardened when fired and containing a major proportion of hydrated aluminum silicates which are derived by the weathering or decomposition of granite or other feldspathic rock.

(1) Note. Many natural materials are considered to be clays, e.g., kaolin, fire clays, ball clays, china clays, bentonite, fuller's earth, bauxite, montmorillonite, halloysite, and argillaceous earths.

(2) Note. Typical clay containing ceramic compositions or articles are, e.g., common or face brick, structural blocks, porcelain bricks, pottery, china, terra cotta, tile, sewer pipe, and some coating and filling compositions.

CLAY (CLASS 502)
A naturally occurring hydrated aluminum silicate originally derived from the earth, having physical properties due at least in part to the size and distribution of colloidal particles, and properties including plasticity. Thirty or more percent of the particles are under 0.002 mm in diameter.

(1) Note. The use of the term clay in a document is considered to meet the above definition.

(2) Note. Terms recognized as clay: attapulgite, bentonite, fuller'S earth, halloysite, illite kaolin, montmorillonite, mullite.

(3) Note. Some earthy silicon compounds that are not clay or zeolite include Asbestos, Diaspore, Diatomaceous earth, Diatomite, Feldspar, Guhr, Kieselgahr, Mica, Quartz, Sand, and Silica.

CLEAN (CLASS 072)
To loosen, separate, or remove from the surface of metal a spot or layer of any substance generally distinguishable from the work material without intended redimensioning of said material.

CLEANING (CLASS 431)
The dislodging of extraneous matter or incrustations.

CLEANSING (CLASS 173)
The act of removing matter resulting from the operation of the tool on the work.

CLEANSING FLUID (CLASS 173)
A fluid which is adapted to perform a cleansing function upon work. Such a fluid may be solely described as performing some other function, such as cooling the work, so long as it is directed in such a manner as to inherently cleanse the work.

CLIENT (CLASS 725)
The requesting device in a communications network. In a client-server network, for example, a user interface could reside in the client workstation while the storage and retrieval functions could reside in the server database.

CLIP (CLASS 725)
A portion of motion video material consisting of plural fields or frames of video data.

CLIP(*) (CLASS 024)
A securing mechanism or element including a member which (1) is intended to be connected or attached to a rigid or semirigid supporting member (e.g., wall, floor, roof) or article (e.g., pen, vehicle) having an additional and usually principle function other than normally associated with this class, and (2) has a gripping surface intended to coact with the surface of the supporting member or article to engage the opposite sides of a distinct structure-to-be-secured* positioned therebetween to prevent or hinder either (a) the movement of the structure-to-be-secured* relative to the surfaces in one direction, or (b) the separation of a structure-to-be-secured* from the supporting member or article. The gripping surface of the member is intended to be always easily moved into and out of engagement with the structure-to-be-secured* by either direct manual or tool force thereon or actuation of an attached operator*. In addition, the gripping surface, when engaging with or disengaging from the structure-to-be-secured does not exceed the elastic limit of or destroy any portion of the securing mechanism or element. If the mechanism or element is formed from either a single piece or plural fixedly attached pieces of rigid* material, then the structural shape of the gripping surfaces and the outward force of the compressed structure-to-be-secured provide the gripping force required above.

CLOSED COIL (CLASS 336)
is a coil which is not designed to be connected to an external source or to a circuit, but which has the ends of the coil connected together so that a magnetic field can induce current therein which current flows in the closed path formed by the closed coil and generates a magnetic field in opposition to the current inducing field.

CLOSED DIE (CLASS 072)
A tool* which comprises a work-shape-imposing orifice*, cavity*, or passageway*. (See diagrams under subclasses 276, 327, 350, and 360 for examples of "Closed Die").

CLOSED LOOP CONTROL (CLASS 388)
A method of control in which the power input of a motor is adjusted by a control circuit which compares a reference signal with a feedback signal proportional to an output parameter (e.g., speed) of the motor to modify the power input of the motor so as to achieve or maintain some desired operating condition of the motor (e.g., constant running speed).

CLOSED SYSTEM (CLASS 425)
Plural fluid containing elements in fluid tight relation when under pressure.

CLOSURE (CLASS 049)
A closure is an obstructive structure whose presence in or before a passage bars traffic through the passage. The character of passage varies depending on the thing or things the passage is intended to accommodate. For example, a single rod across a doorway prevents passage of a person but not a small animal; a letter slot permits passage of a letter but not a large package, a window sash permits passage of light but not air, a shutter permits passage of air but restricts the passage of light.

CLOSURE (CLASS 053)
A species of cover in which a separate cover member completes the encasement or confinement of contents within a preformed receptacle when said member is assembled within, over or around the aperture of said receptacle.

CLOSURE (CLASS 413)
A lid, bottle cap, the top of a can.

CLOTH (CLASS 428)
A fabric* which for purposes of this class is considered to be made of mechanically intertwined, interlooped, interwoven, or intertangled strands*, strand-portions* or strand like strips*. See Class 442, class definition. (Structural)

CLSEG (CLASS 438)
Confined lateral SEG

CLUTCH (CLASS 475)
Mechanism to selectively or automatically couple two relatively moving parts together for common movement or to uncouple such parts.

CLUTCH: (CLASS 477)
Mechanism operable to couple two relatively rotatable parts together for common rotation or to uncouple such parts. The clutch* as used in the definition of this class or subclasses is a clutch* that may be used without a gear transmission* or in advance of or behind a gear transmission* in a power train. If a clutch is used as a part of transmission (i.e., in a planetary transmission to change gear ratio or direction), such a clutch is classified with transmission control rather than clutch control.

| A | B | C-CL | CM-CZ | D-DIM | DIM-DZ | E | F | G | H | I | J-K | L | M-MET | MET-MZ | N | O | P-PHA | PHE-PON | POR-PZ | Q | R | S-SEPA | SEPO-SMT | SN-STEM | STEP-SZ | T-TOG | TON-TZ | U | V | W | X-Z |

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