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USPTO Terms of Art — B

Glossary of USPC Terms of Art

| A | B | C-CL | CM-CZ | D-DIM | DIM-DZ | E | F | G | H | I | J-K | L | M-MET | MET-MZ | N | O | P-PHA | PHE-PON | POR-PZ | Q | R | S-SEPA | SEPO-SMT | SN-STEM | STEP-SZ | T-TOG | TON-TZ | U | V | W | X-Z |

BACK BONDED (CLASS 257)
The bonding of active chips to a substrate using the back of the chip opposite the side containing active solid-state devices.

BACK(*) (CLASS 412)
The back is that portion of a book formed where and when the sections of it are united by sewing, stitching(*), or stapling. The term back is sometimes erroneously used to describe the portion of the outer covering member which encloses the back, but the term spine(*) is preferred for this portion of the covering member.

BACKER (CLASS 052)
Means forming an extended surface against which a settable material is cast, e.g., troweled, spread, poured etc., the material when set forming a wear surface or facing.

BACKHOE (CLASS 037)
This is a material handling machine which includes a boom pivoted to a vehicle, a handle or dipstick pivoted to the boom, and bucket or scoop pivoted to the dipstick with the open top of the bucket facing back toward the vehicle.

BACKING(*) (CLASS 412)
The book making operation referring to the step for making the back(*) of the book(*), wherein the back(*) has been previously sewn and glued, whereby the back edge of the sheets(*), signatures(*), quires(*), etc., which make up the book(*) are splayed outwards from the center of the book(*) and gives the back(*) a convex shape. This adds to the permanence of the back and provides an abutment for the boards in the book(*) covering member. Rounding and backing(*) are considered synonymous for purposes of the terms of this Glossary.

BACTERICIDE (CLASS 210)
Any material capable of inhibiting or destroying bacteria.

BAIT (CLASS 065)
See Subclass References to the Current Class, above, for a subclass reference to the term “bait.”

BALANCED CIRCUIT (CLASS 330)
A circuit having its conductors electrically symmetrical with respect to a reference potential plane (e.g., ground). The potential between the two sides and ground are equal and of opposite sign. For example, a horizontal two-wire line may be a balanced line. See Push-Pull Stage.

BALANCED CIRCUIT (CLASS 333)
A circuit having its conductors electrically symmetrical with respect to a reference potential plane (e.g., ground). The potentials between the two sides and ground are equal and of opposite sign. For example, a horizontal two wire line may be a balanced line.

BALL BOND (CLASS 257)
A bond formed by a round, ball-shaped lead on a semiconductor device.

BALLISTIC TRANSPORT DEVICE (CLASS 257)
An active solid-state electronic device in which an active layer is present through which carriers* pass, wherein the active layer is thinner than the mean free path of the carriers* in the material in that layer, so that carriers* can pass through the layer without scattering. Carriers* are typically injected into the ballistic transport layer as “hot” carriers*, having an energy, in the case of electrons, substantially greater than the minimum of the conduction band*, or in the case of holes, substantially lower than the maximum of the valence band. Ballistic electron injectors include heterojunctions, tunnel barriers, and punchthrough (e.g., planar doped or camel) barriers.

BAND (CLASS 053)
A species of cover in which the cover material completely encircles the contents in one direction only, such as girth, leaving the contents fully exposed on two sides or ends, and which is in frictional contact with the contents so as to be retained thereon. See “BINDING”.

BAND GAP (CLASS 257)
The difference between the energy levels of electrons bound to their nuclei (valence electrons) and the energy levels that allow electrons to migrate freely (conduction electrons). The band gap depends on the particular semiconductor involved.

BAND GAP (CLASS 438)
The difference between the energy levels of electrons bound to their nuclei (valence electrons) and the energy levels that allow electrons to migrate freely (conduction electrons). The band gap depends on the particular semiconductor involved.

BANDWIDTH (CLASS 370)
The width of a communications channel.

BANDWIDTH (CLASS 725)
The range of frequencies within which performance, with respect to some characteristic, falls within specific limits. For example, the specified frequency range over which the amplitude response does not vary more than a defined amount. Bandwidth is commonly defined at the points where the response is 3 dB less than the reference value (0.707 root-mean-square voltage ratio). In broadband networks, the frequency range that a component, circuit, or system passes or uses. Also, the range of frequencies, expressed in hertz, that can pass over a given channel. For example, a television channel typically occupies a bandwidth of 6,000,000 Hz (6 MHz), and cable systems typically occupy 5-300 MHz or higher of the electromagnetic spectrum.

BARK (CLASS 144)
The peripheral natural covering of a tree*.

Bark spectrum (CLASS 704)
The width of one critical band.

BARRIER (CLASS 049)
A construction forming an extended indefinite surface preventing or inhibiting the passage of persons or things, e.g., wall, ceiling, floor, roof or cover.

BARRIER (CLASS 052)
A construction forming an extended indefinite surface preventing or inhibiting the passage of persons or things, e.g., wall, ceiling, floor, roof or cover.

BARRIER (CLASS 249)
A construction forming an extended indefinite surface preventing or inhibiting the passage of persons or things, e.g., wall, ceiling, floor, etc.

BARRIER LAYER DEVICE (CLASS 029)
An electrical component consisting of two conductors placed either in contact with each other or separated by an interface layer to which contacts or terminals have been secured, which component has a nonlinear resistance characteristic, as a result of the electrical action of the interface between the two conductors rather than from the characteristic of the conductors.

BARRIER REGION OR LAYER (CLASS 257)
A region which extends on both sides of a semiconductor junction in which all carriers are swept away from the junction region. The region is depleted of carriers. This is also referred to as a depletion region.

BARRIER REGION OR LAYER (CLASS 438)
A region which extends on both sides of a semiconductor junction in which all carriers are swept away from the junction region. The region is depleted of carriers. This is also referred to as a depletion region. Not to be confused with diffusion barrier layers associated with metallization schemes for active solid state devices.

BARRITT DIODE (CLASS 257)
Barrier injection transit time diode. A bipolar or device in which a type of breakdown known as punchthrough occurs and wherein the punchthrough structure device is operable at microwave frequencies. In bipolar transistors a direct current path is formed from emitter to collector due to the formation of a depletion region throughout the base region and charge carriers from the emitter punch through to the collector. Carriers flowing from the emitter to the collector take a controlled time to pass through the depletion layer, leading to a controlled delay in current after a voltage is applied, and effective negative impedance.

BASE (CLASS 075)
A metal which is present in an amount of over 50% by weight in an alloy.

BASE (CLASS 117)
The surface upon which a coating is formed, except where a surface has been previously coated and a second coating is applied, in which case the initial surface is the base. Contrast with substrate*.

BASE (CLASS 313)
A member attached to the lamp or discharge device so that it may be attached to a supporting socket or supported on a surface. The base usually includes electrical connector means for connecting the lamp or discharge device in a circuit. Where the lamp or discharge device is provided with an envelope, the base is usually attached to the envelope, as by cementing, or the envelope is formed so as to have an integral base portion.

BASE (CLASS 338)
Unless otherwise indicated an element along which the resistance element extends to impart a rigidity or reinforcement to the resistance element not otherwise present.

BASE (CLASS 420)
A metal which is present in an amount of over 50 percent by weight in an alloy, or metallic composition.

BASE (CLASS 428)
That substance or material which has been covered or saturated or permeated, either partially or completely by another material. This term is synonymous with Substrate. (Structural)

BASE (CLASS 901)
The supporting structure for the arm*.

BASE CURRENT (CLASS 257)
The electrical current that flows in the base terminal of a bipolar transistor.

BASE ELECTRODE (CLASS 330)
See the definition of point contact or junction transistor above.

BASE REGION (CLASS 257)
The region between the emitter and collector of a bipolar transistor into which minority carriers are injected by the emitter.

BASIC DYE (CLASS 008)
A basic or cationic dye will dye substrates having acidic properties, e.g., polyacrylonitrile, acid modified polyester, etc. They include diphenylmethane, triphenylmethane, xanthene, naphtroperinone, quinophthalone, quaternary ammonium group, etc., containing dyes.

BASIC INGREDIENT (CLASS 426)
Principal constituent (except added water) of a composition considered to be the fundamental part and by which the composition is (usually) identified. Usually the basic ingredient constitutes the major portion of the composition, e.g., chocolate milk-milk is the basic ingredient. In those instances wherein a plurality of percentages of the ingredients are given that ingredient which constitutes 50 of the total composition (excluding added water) is considered to be the basic ingredient. The 50% may be determined by summing like ingredients, e.g., lactose, whey and butter fat are all lacteal derived.

BASIC RECEIVER (CLASS 348)
A receiver for converting incoming electric signals into television pictures and the associated sound.

BATCH (CLASS 065)
A properly proportioned mixture of raw materials to be delivered to a melting apparatus.

BATCH CHARGER (CLASS 065)
Mechanical means for introducing a batch to a melting apparatus.

BATT (CLASS 264)
A term of art for a web or sheet of material generally formed by random interfelting of mass deposited discrete fibers or from tangled or matted filaments, e.g., cotton batting.

BATTERY (CLASS 320)
A unit source of D.C. voltage consisting of a plurality of voltaic cells electrically connected in series, parallel, or both, to increase available voltage or power from a single cell. "Plural batteries" include a combination or association of two or more structurally dependent, or independent, battery units.

BATTERYCELL (CLASS 429)
Two spaced electrodes provided with means to transfer an ionic current therebetween.

BBCO (CLASS 438)
Barium bismuth copper oxide (a HTSC)

BBD (CLASS 438)
Bucket brigade device

BBL (CLASS 438)
Buried bit-line

BEAD (CLASS 065)
(1) A small piece of glass fused onto an electrical conductor, (2) an enlarged rounded portion on an edge of an article or stock material, (3) small discrete particles of glass.

BEAM LEADS (CLASS 257)
Flat, metallic leads which extend beyond the edges of a chip component like wooden beams extend from a roof overhang. Beam leads are used to interconnect a component to film circuitry.

BEAM TUBE (CLASS 331)
An active element comprising a source of charged particles, means for concentrating the particles into a directed beam, means for exerting a control on the beam (e.g., beam accelerating electrode, control grid, deflecting means, slow wave structure, buncher type resonator, reflector electrode, etc.) and means for deriving output energy from the controlled beam.

BEAT FREQUENCY (CLASS 331)
The resulting difference (or sum) frequency wave, among other waves, produced when two waves of different frequencies are combined in a nonlinear device.

BEATER (CLASS 460)
A rotary device mounted behind or in front of the cylinder on a combine which strikes the grains.

BED (CLASS 438)
Band edge discontinuity

BELOW GROUND (CLASS 175)
“Below Ground” denotes any point within a hole being formed in the earth from the point at which the earth is pierced by the means forming the hole.

BELT (CLASS 474)
A power transferring member forming an endless loop and constructed of flexible material or of articulated rigid links to permit the member to conform to a radius of curvature of a pulley* drive face and intended, in use, to be driven in an endless path; and, by contact with the pulley drive face, to transmit power to or extract power from the pulley.

BENDING (CLASS 156)
Distortion of a workpiece by bodily moving a portion of it throughout its entire thickness relative to a second portion during which the thickness of the workpiece remains substantially the same and no significant plastic flow occurs.

BENDING (CLASS 264)
Distorting or deforming of a workpiece or self sustaining body by curving or moving a portion thereof through its entire thickness relative to another portion during which the thickness thereof remains substantially the same and no significant plastic flow occurs.

BENZENE NUCLEUS (CLASS 260)
Denotes the presence of a six-membered ring, all of whose members are carbons and containing three conjugated double bonds, thus: >

BENZENE RING (CLASS 514)
This term includes in all cases except where there are explicit limitations to the contrary, substituted benzene rings, including substitution in the form of an additional fused or bridged ring or ring system.

BENZENE RING (CLASS 532)
This term includes, in all cases except where there are explicit limitations to the contrary, substituted benzene rings, including substitution in the form of an additional fused or bridged ring or ring system. Thus, for example, if a subclass reads: “Benzene ring bonded directly to the five-membered hetero ring”, the moiety bonded directly to the hetero ring may be phenyl, chlorophenyl, dinitrophenyl, naphthyl, etc. All that is necessary to satisfy the terminology of the subclass is that a substituted or unsubstituted benzene ring be bonded directly to the hetero ring.

BERYL (CLASS 117)
Beryllium aluminum silicate; Be3Al2Si6O18; 3BeO.Al2O3.6SiO2; emerald; aquamarine. Usually green.

BESSEMER CONVERTER (CLASS 075)
A device having passages in its bottom (i.e., tuyeres) through which a gas containing gaseous Oxygen (e.g., air, etc.) is passed upwardly through molten metal or molten metalliferous material (e.g., matte, etc.) to treat the metal or material.

BEVEL GEAR (CLASS 475)
A gear having radial teeth extending in the same general direction as the rotational axis of the gear, but inclined with respect to the rotational axis of the gear.

BH (CLASS 438)
Buried heterostructure

BHF (CLASS 438)
Buffered hydrofluoric acid

BI-DIRECTIONAL (CLASS 379)
Capable of use, particularly in transmitting information in two opposite directions. Additionally, when used to describe an audio transducer, capable of conversion of sound both to and from electrical signal variations.

BI-FET (CLASS 257)
An active solid-state electronic device that contains both bipolar and field effect transistors.

BIAS (CLASS 257)
A direct current or voltage applied to an active solid-state device that establishes certain operating characteristics of the device.

BIAS CONTROL (CLASS 330)
Control, as defined above applied to control of bias voltage or current of an amplifying device. This is distinguished from signal feedback in that the bias control voltage or current has a smoothed average value which adds to or subtracts from the bias voltage or current and is unlike the signal feedback voltage which varies instantaneously with the signal at the point from which it is derived. See also, Bias, Bias Voltage or Bias Current.

BIAS, BIAS VOLTAGE, BIAS CURRENT (CLASS 330)
In an amplifying device, usually, a steady D.C.. voltage or current applied between two electrodes usually referred to the input electrodes to form an electric reference means for the control means, which influences the current flow of an electronic tube or semiconductor device or the flux relationships of a magnetic saturable reactor. See also Bias Control and Power Supply.

BIC (CLASS 438)
Breakdown of insulator for conduction

BICFET (CLASS 438)
Bipolar inversion channel FET

BiCMOS (CLASS 438)
Integrated bipolar and CMOS

BICYCLO RING SYSTEM (CLASS 514)
This term denotes a polycyclo ring system which contains exactly two rings.

BILATERAL (CLASS 257)
A characteristic of an active solid-state electronic device that permits it to support current flow in opposite directions.

BiMOS (CLASS 438)
Integrated bipolar and MOSFET

BINARY COMPOUND (CLASS 257)
A substance that always contains the same two elements in a fixed atomic ratio.

BINARY COMPOUND (CLASS 423)
A chemical compound consisting of 2 elements only with 2 or more atoms; e.g., NaC1, FeC13, Fe304, etc.

BINARY COMPOUND (CLASS 438)
A substance that always contains the same two elements in a fixed atomic ratio.

BINARY LARGE OBJECTS (BLOBs) (CLASS 707)
An object for storing a large amount of binary data within a database management system. BLOBs are often used to store media or multimedia data. Because of its size, it is sometimes stored external to a database management system, with the DBMS storing only references to the BLOB. See also LOBs.

BINDING (CLASS 053)
The embracing by means of a filament, strand or wire of either an accumulated bunch of articles, a series of coils, or a single encased package. It differs from banding in that no substantial area of the contents is covered, and the binder is usually tied, knotted, or twisted. Except where applied to a package for this class, (see subclass 138.6), the process of and apparatus for applying a binding is not here classified. See “Packaging and Binding Elsewhere Classified” of the Class Definition for binding, per se.

BINDING (CLASS 100)
The disposing of a flexible filament, strand, or band taut and circumferentially closed about material.

BINOCULAR (CLASS 359)
Pertaining to the use of both eyes in the act of viewing.

BINOCULAR COORDINATION (CLASS 351)
Fusion of the sight responses of both eyes, or correct space perception.

BIOCHEMICAL (CLASS 435)
By means of a bacteria, yeast, animal or plant cell, or virus, or the parts thereof.

BIOCHEMICAL METHOD (CLASS 506)
Process involving the use of micro-organisms, enzymes, vectors, or antibodies.

BIOLOGICALLY ACTIVE POLYPEPTIDE (CLASS 520)
Denotes polypeptide chains which have been built up primarily from alpha- or beta-amino carboxylic acids and which exhibit biological activity similar to naturally occurring proteins or polypeptides; such activity may be, for example, hormone activity (e.g., insulin, etc.), immuno-activity (e.g., antigen or antibody, etc.), antibiotic activity (e.g., bacitracin or bleomycin, etc.), or antiviral activity (e.g., interferon, etc.). Mere statements that a material demonstrates any of these activities is sufficient to create a presumption that a biologically active polypeptide is present. On the other hand, a material merely disclosed as a polypeptide which has been built-up from amino acids will not be presumed to have biological activity, and will be placed in Class 520 according to the disclosed structure and function as appropriate.

BIOMIMETICS or BIOMIMICRY (CLASS 977)
Nanotechnology designed to mimic biological structure/processes.

BIONANOTECHNOLOGY (NANOBIOTECHNOLOGY) (CLASS 977)
Branch of nanotechnology that uses biological structures, such as proteins, ATPs, DNA, etc., as building blocks of nanoscale devices. Sometimes called “wet-dry” technology, wherein the term “wet” pertains to biological components and “dry” refers to engineered, inorganic nanoparticles.

BIPOLAR (CLASS 257)
An active solid-state electronic device in which both positive and negative current carriers are used to support current flow.

BIPOLAR (CLASS 438)
An active solid-state electronic device in which both positive and negative current carriers are used to support current flow.

BIPOLAR TRANSISTOR (CLASS 257)
An active solid-state electronic device with a base electrode and two or more junction electrodes in which both positive and negative current carriers are used to support current flow.

BIPOLAR TRANSISTOR (CLASS 438)
An active solid-state electronic device with a base electrode and two or more junction electrodes in which both positive and negative current carriers are used to support current flow.

BIRD'S BEAK (CLASS 438)
The lateral encroachment of the localized oxidation region associated with a recessed oxide isolation structure.

BIREFRINGENT (CLASS 359)
Certain crystalline materials have their outer electrons bound more strongly in one direction than another resulting in the material having two refractive indices depending on the direction of the oscillation. Such materials are termed birefringent and, if an unpolarized light ray enters such a material obliquely, it will be refracted into two different linearly polarized rays having directions of polarization which are normal to one another.

BIREFRINGENT (CLASS 372)
The property of dividing a ray of light into two polarized rays (known as the ordinary and extraordinary rays), the directions of polarization of the rays being at right angles to each other.

BITMAP (CLASS 707)
Data structure or file organizational format storing bits in a spatial map.

BITUMINOUS OR TARRY RESIDUE (CLASS 428)
A composition or compound having the characteristics of a tar or pitch no matter what the origin. This term includes all asphalts, bitumens, pitches and tars from coal, mineral oil, cotton seed pitch and the residue from the destructive distillation of wood, and natural oil distillations. Carbohydrate 1) polyhydroxy mono-aldehydes and polyhydroxy mono-ketones, generally having the formula Cn(H2O)m and substances which are hydrolized to these. The term includes cellulose, starch dextran, dextrin, sugar, and lignin. (Nonstructural or Composition)

(1) Note. Wheat paste, which contains gluten, is considered polyamide.

BJT (CLASS 438)
Bipolar junction transistor

BKBO (CLASS 438)
Barium potassium bismuth oxide (a HTSC)

BLADE (CLASS 415)
A working member on the runner which contacts the working fluid. This member may variously be called a bucket, vane, pocket or float in the art literature.

BLADE (CLASS 416)
A working member* which has a thickness dimension substantially less than its width or length, the thickness being generally uniform from edge to edge.

BLADE ANGLE (CLASS 416)
The acute angle between the chord* of any section of a rotating working member* and its plane of rotation. As the blade angle usually varies from the hub to the tip, the U.S. custom is to designate blade angle numerically as that angle occurring at 75% of the radial distance from the hub to the tip. See Figures I and II.

BLANK (CLASS 072)
A discrete piece of material which is intended to be subjected to an operation of the class type.

BLANK (CLASS 428)
See definition of intermediate-article*. (Structural)

BLANK HOLDER (CLASS 072)
A mechanism, incorporated in a metal-deforming device, intended to grip a blank prior to and during deformation thereof. (Often arranged to permit a desired amount of slippage of said blank in response to the application of deforming force thereto, thereby modifying the effect of the metal-deforming tools). See “Clamp”.

BLANKET MATERIAL (CLASS 376)
A layer of fertile material placed external to core of the fission reactor. See Fertile Material.

BLANKING INTERVAL (CLASS 725)
In television systems, the range of a composite picture signal containing either vertical or horizontal synchronizing information. This range is separate from the range containing picture information.

BLAST FURNACE (CLASS 075)
A type of shaft furnace specifically designed to reduce metal compounds (e.g., ore, etc.) to elemental metal using a combustible solid reductant (e.g., coke, etc.). The furnace is designed to operate continuously for a long period of time, with solid reductant, metal compound, and any other desired solid additive (e.g., flux, etc.) being continuously or periodically added at the top of the furnace and the resulting molten metal and by-product slag being continuously or periodically tapped from the bottom of the furnace. A gas containing gaseous Oxygen (e.g., air, etc.) is preheated (usually by the exhaust gas) and is injected into the furnace through tuyeres above the molten metal and slag level.

BLIND STITCH (CLASS 112)
A stitch in which the sewing thread penetrates only one nonthickness surface of a layer or component. See Figure 1. >

BLM (CLASS 438)
Ball limiting metallization

BLOCH WAVELENGTH (CLASS 257)
The effective wavelength of electrons in a semiconductor crystal, sometimes referred to as a wave packet or wave function. It can be an order of magnitude larger than the de broglie wavelength of electrons having the same energy.

BLOCK (CLASS 052)
A module whose depth is substantial relative to its length and height and which in use forms a stable load-bearing member.

BLOCK (CLASS 428)
A relatively large piece of material whose thickness is many times that of a web* or sheet* compared with its width. (Structural)

BLOCK (CLASS 725)
To restrict the passage, progress, or exchange of data.

BLOCK COPOLYMER (CLASS 520)
A. The structure is given, i.e., a long polymer backbone has attached or coupled to one or both of its terminal ends one or more polymers at least three reactant units in length or; B. The copolymer is named as a block providing that the disclosure is otherwise silent as to its structure or if the structure is likewise given, it is consistent with that described above or; C. The structure can be ascertained from the following limiting process conditions (a) Treating a nonterminated solid polymer, that is, one which is terminally active or “living”, with an ethylenic reactant with subsequent polymerization to form additional blocks. The process may be continued to produce higher order block copolymers. For example, treating dilithiated polystyrene with butadiene to yield an ABA block copolymer; and (b) two or more nonidentical solid polymer chain ends are coupled directly or through the use of a chemical agent. For example, the coupling of hydroxy terminated solid polybutadiene with hydroxy terminated polyethylene glycol terephthalate with phosgene.

BLOCK-TYPE COPOLYMER (CLASS 520)
The structure is given, i.e., to a long solid polymer backbone possessing terminally active sites (i.e., functional groups), or that is a “living polymer” is attached or coupled, through chemical reaction with those functional groups or sites, an ethylenic reactant containing one or more functional groups or sites; an example is to contact hydroxy terminated polybutadiene glycol with allyl isocyanate, or two or more identical solid polymer chain ends are coupled directly or through the use of a chemical agent. For purposes here, identical means those polymer segments which contain the same carbon backbone but differ in stereo regularity (e.g., isotactic, syndiotactic, atactic) optical activity, or degree of polymerization. Thus, coupling lithium terminated polystyrene segments with molecular weights of 25,000 and 100,000, respectively, with stannic chloride is proper for this area.

BLOSSOM-END (CLASS 099)
This expression relates to the surface area of food at the location of the natural attachment to the food of the flower or calyx of food such as a cherry or strawberry and may also include a small portion of adjacent skin; the expression is arbitrarily extended to include the tip or root of food such as a turnip or potato.

BLOWING (CLASS 065)
Shaping or forming an undefined mass of glass in a soft state by introducing gas within a confined opening within the mass, i.e., by inflating.

BLOWING (CLASS 425)
Forming a plastic mass or preform by introducing gas under pressure within the mass or preform.

BLUEING (CLASS 148)
A process of forming a protective oxide coating on ferrous metal.

BMD (CLASS 438)
Bulk micro defect

BODY (CLASS 462)
A sheet* in the form of a strip*, leaf*, or book* or any other article to be subjected to a process or apparatus of this class.

BOE (CLASS 438)
Buffered oxide etch

BOILER (CLASS 122)
Used as a generic term for a liquid heater. The nature of the liquid heated is immaterial. Whether the liquid heated is conducted from the boiler as liquid or vapor depends upon the amount supplied and the degree of heat attained, and for this reason generally no distinction has been noted in the classification, similar structures being classified together regardless of the ultimate effect. In the type of boilers known as “flashers” this distinction is of importance and provision has been made therefor.

BOLT (CLASS 070)
A securing element mounted on one part and having a portion or portions movable to cooperative engagement with a keeper on another part to prevent relative movement between said parts.

BOND (CLASS 425)
Uniting by adhesive means or fusion (a mechanical interlock is excluded).

BONDING AREA (CLASS 257)
The area, defined by the extent of a metallization land or the top surface of a terminal, to which a lead is or is to be bonded.

BONDING PAD (CLASS 257)
A metallized area to which an electrical connection is to be made. It is also called a bonding island or a controlled collapse chip connection.

BONDING PAD (CLASS 438)
A metallized area to which an external electrical connection is to be made.

BONDING WIRE (CLASS 257)
Fine wire for making electrical connections in hybrid circuits between various bonding pads on the semiconductor device substrate and device terminals or substrate lands.

BONE BLACK (CLASS 502)
Solid residue from chafing bones - @10%carbon, 80% Ca3(PO4), used particularly in decolorizing sugar solutions.

BOOK (CLASS 281)
Consists of two or more sheets secured together (a) only at their margins or (b) only at a restricted field within the margins or (c) only at their margins and at a restricted field within the margins. A folded sheet has not been classified as a book. When a margin of one sheet is attached to a margin of another sheet to obtain in effect a single sheet of greater area, the resulting article is still regarded as a sheet rather than a book.

BOOK (CLASS 283)
consists of two or more sheets secured together, in the manner recited in the class definition of Class 281.

BOOK (CLASS 462)
Two or more sheets* secured together only at their margins or at a portion thereof, in particular, the outside limit or edge and adjoining surface of the sheets. A single folded sheet is not considered to be a book; however, a stack of two or more folded sheets becomes a book when bonded together along the fold lines.

BOOK(*) (CLASS 412)
A book consists of two or more sheets(*) secured together either: (a) only at their margins; or (b) only at a restricted field within the margins; or (c) only at their margins and at a restricted field within the margins. When a margin of one sheet is attached to a margin of another sheet(*) to obtain in effect a single sheet(*) or greater area, the resulting article is still regarded as a sheet(*) rather than a book. A folded sheet is not considered to be a book. Book and bound book are synonomous terms and in both, a covering member has not yet been applied. See this Glossary for the definition of the term completed book(*).

BOOM (CLASS 037)
This is a device comprising an elongated beam adapted to project from an excavating device for the purpose of supporting the excavating equipment and wherein the device is normally pivoted to a support.

BOOM (CLASS 212)
An elongated member protruding from a mast, crane body, trolley, or other supporting structure and from which the load is suspended.

BOOT (CLASS 713)
To start up a computer or the process of starting or resetting a computer.

BORE (CLASS 175)
The hole formed by the boring means. It is not limited to a vertically extending hole, but can extend at any angle into the earth.

BOREWALL (CLASS 175)
The wall which forms the periphery of a hole in the earth. In the case of a lined hole the inside wall of the lining constitutes a borewall for purposes of classification.

BORING MEANS (CLASS 175)
A combination of parts comprising an earth boring or drilling device. It may comprise merely a tool provided with a handle for manipulating the same to form a hole in the earth, or a complex combination of parts including above ground structure for supporting, feeding and driving a tool for boring a hole in the earth.

BOSE-EINSTEIN CONDENSATE (CLASS 977)
State of matter occurring in certain materials at low temperature wherein particles behaving under Fermi-Dirac statistics, such as electrons, etc., behave like particles under Bose-Einstein statistics, such as photons, etc.; also occurs in superconducting materials.

BOSE-EINSTEIN STATISTICS (CLASS 977)
Statistical distribution of boson particles, such as photons (light particles), etc., occurring between energy states.

BOTTOM-UP MANUFACTURING (CLASS 977)
Manufacturing that starts with atomic or molecular particles and builds up; term is often contrasted with top-down manufacturing employing etching, deposition, evaporation, etc., associated with traditional semiconductor processes in which processing involves bulk addition or removal steps.

BOULE (CLASS 117)
(From French; ball) A lump of material. In this class the term applies to the raw, single-crystal* product.

BOWL (CLASS 037)
This device is a portion of a scoop which holds and carries the excavated material during transport. The scoop portion can be adapted to be used in connection with an apron, elevator, or ejector.

BOWL (CLASS 494)
A receptacle-like member having generally-imperforate sidewalls and constituting that portion of a SEPARATOR within which the subdividing of material into two or more components takes place, or, at least, commences. Ordinarily considered as part of the member are such devices or structure as are either affixed thereto or integral therewith. The art term, rotor, is sometimes used to mean approximately the same as BOWL.

BOX (CLASS 438)
Buried oxide

BOXES (CLASS 438)
Buried oxide with etch stop

BPSG (CLASS 438)
Borophosphosilica glass

BPTEOS (CLASS 438)
borophosphoTEOS

BRACE ARM (CLASS 351)
A relatively long and slender temple supporting arm or arc substantially identical to the shape of the upper contour edge of a lens.

BRACKISH (CLASS 210)
Somewhat salty, but substantially less so than sea water.

BRAKE (CLASS 425)
A baker's kneading machine. In bread making “braking” is kneading.

BRAKE (CLASS 475)
Mechanism to selectively or automatically stop a moving part with respect to a stationary part.

BRAKE OR CLAMP (CLASS 225)
A means for applying friction directly or indirectly to the work, the means as disclosed being intended to slow, stop or prevent work motion. Class 51 for device for feeding and severing strips utilized for manifolding.

BRAKE-SLIP (CLASS 701)
The slippage of a wheel caused by the braking operation during deceleration of the vehicle.

BRAKE: (CLASS 477)
Mechanism operable to stop a rotatable part with respect to a stationary part. If a brake is used as a part of transmission (i.e., in a planetary transmission to change gear ratio or direction), such a brake is classified with transmission control rather than brake control.

BREAKDOWN (CLASS 257)
A sudden change from high dynamic electrical resistance to a very low dynamic resistance in a reverse biased semiconductor device, e.g., a reverse biased junction between p-type and n-type semiconductor materials, wherein reverse current increases rapidly for a small increase in reverse applied voltage, and the device behaves as if it had negative electrical resistance.

BREAKDOWN (CLASS 438)
A sudden change from high dynamic electrical resistance to a very low dynamic resistance in a reverse biased semiconductor device (e.g., a reverse biased junction between p-type and n-type semiconductor materials) wherein reverse current increases rapidly for a small increase in reverse applied voltage, and the device behaves as if it had negative electrical resistance.

BREAKDOWN POINT/VOLTAGE (CLASS 257)
The voltage value at which breakdown occurs.

BREAKOVER (CLASS 257)
The start of current flow in a silicon controlled rectifier.

BREEDER MATERIAL (CLASS 376)
See (a) Blanket Material and (b) Fertile Material.

BRIDGE (-WALL) (CLASS 065)
A hollow wall generally having an air space between refractory blocks from which it is formed and providing an opening or throat adjacent its bottom used in a tank furnace to separate a working end from a fining or melting zone.

BRIDGE (CLASS 212)
An elongated member supported horizontally at two spaced points and which either serves as or bears a track or guide between the supporting points on which a load-supporting trolley or a traveling bridge is adapted to move.

BRIDGE (CLASS 351)
The connecting part between the lens supporting members of spectacles or eyeglasses.

BRINE (CLASS 210)
A relatively concentrated salt water solution sometimes from wells or industrial sources and including sea water.

BRIQUET (CLASS 044)
Defined as a fuel object, of a size suitable to be manipulated by a human hand, made, by consolidating, usually including pressing and shaping, smaller-sizes, loose, broken, comminuted or other divided carbonaceous powder, particles, chunks, lumps, fibers, sheets, etc.

BROWNIAN MOTION (CLASS 977)
Stochastic motion of a particle suspended in a surrounding gas or liquid comprised of other particles, molecules, or atoms, which is in thermodynamic equilibrium.

BRUSH (CLASS 388)
A piece of conductive material, usually carbon or graphite, which rides on the commutator of a motor and forms the electrical connection between the motor and a power source.

BSD (CLASS 438)
Back side damage

BSE (CLASS 438)
buried storage electrode

BSG (CLASS 438)
Borosilica glass

BSQ (CLASS 438)
Bias sputter quartz

BST (CLASS 438)
Barium strontium titanate

BUCKET BRIGADE DEVICE (CLASS 257)
A charge transfer device in which only a portion of the charge carriers (electrons or holes) at each storage site are transferred to the next storage site.

BUCKLE(*) (CLASS 024)
A securing means wherein either member is adapted to allow structure-to-be-secured (*) to pass therethrough, or wherein the members are adapted to allow structure-to-be-secured(*) to pass completely therebetween in a path generally parallel to the longitudinal axis of the members. Buckles are designed to adjustably secure belts, bands, or similar longitudinal articles and generally operate by having one end of the belt band, etc., fixed securely to one end of the buckle with another frictionally or resiliently securing the belt, band, etc., or by passing through a provided for aperture in the belt, band, etc., and generally also has two connected, relatively movable members.

BUCKMINSTERFULLERENE or BUCKYBALL (CLASS 977)
Soccer-ball-shaped form of fullerene (C60).

BUFFER (CLASS 725)
A device in which data are stored temporarily, in the course of transmission from one point to another and used to compensate for a difference in the flow of data or time of occurrence of events when transmitting data from one device to another. Also, the act of such temporary storage of data.

BULK DEPOSITION OF PARTICULATE MATERIAL (CLASS 156)
The fluent delivery of a stream of separate loose pieces onto a receiving surface. The relative size of the pieces is not significant, rather it is the manner in which they are handled, as a mass or stream rather than each particle being individually manipulated.

BULK MATERIAL (CLASS 425)
A mass or pile of stock material lacking any shape that contributes to a final shape after molding. Bulk material may have a definite shape but it must not contribute its shape to a final desired form.

BULK-CHANNEL CCD (CLASS 257)
A charge coupled device in which charge is stored and transferred below the surface of the device.

BULK-EFFECT DEVICE (CLASS 257)
An active solid-state device made up of a semiconductor material whose electrical characteristics and electronic properties are exhibited throughout the entire body of the material, rather than in just a localized region thereof, e.g., the surface.

BUMP CONTACT (CLASS 257)
A term used to describe, typically, solder bumps on a chip or substrate which are found on only one side of the chip or substrate as, for example, on a flip-chip.

BURIED CHANNEL CCD (CLASS 257)
See BULK-CHANNEL CCD.

BURNABLE POISON (CLASS 376)
A substance with high neutron capture cross section which has a capture reaction product of low capture cross section and which is purposely put in a fission reactor to influence the long term reactivity variations.

BURNER (CLASS 431)
Term generic to “burner assembly”, “burner head” and “flame holder”.

BURNER ASSEMBLY (CLASS 431)
A unitary device or fixture including a flame holder and associated feeding or supporting elements.

BURNER HEAD (CLASS 431)
A device by which fluent fuel is passed to a combustion space where it forms a flame projecting from the device.

BURST (CLASS 348)
Also called reference burst, the portion of the composite or noncomposite color-picture signal, comprising a few cycles of a sine wave of chrominance subcarrier frequency, that is used to establish a reference for demodulating the chrominance signal.

BUS (CLASS 345)
A conductor used for transferring data, signals, or power.

BUS (CLASS 709)
A conductor used for transferring data, signals, or power.

BUS (CLASS 711)
A conductor used for transferring data, signals, or power.

BUS (CLASS 712)
A conductor used for transferring data, signals, or power.

BUS (CLASS 713)
A conductor used for transferring data, signals, or power.

BUS (CLASS 714)
A conductor used for transferring data, signals or power.

BUS (CLASS 718)
A conductor used for transferring data, signals, or power.

BUS (CLASS 719)
A conductor used for transferring data, signals, or power.

BY-PRODUCT MATERIALS (CLASS 376)
Are nuclear reaction products (except special nuclear fuel material (see Nuclear Fuel) including gases yielded in or made radioactive by exposure to the radiation incident to the process of producing or utilizing special nuclear fuel in the nuclear reaction.

| A | B | C-CL | CM-CZ | D-DIM | DIM-DZ | E | F | G | H | I | J-K | L | M-MET | MET-MZ | N | O | P-PHA | PHE-PON | POR-PZ | Q | R | S-SEPA | SEPO-SMT | SN-STEM | STEP-SZ | T-TOG | TON-TZ | U | V | W | X-Z |

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