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USPTO Terms of Art — A

Glossary of USPTO Terms of Art

| A | B | C-CL | CM-CZ | D-DIM | DIM-DZ | E | F | G | H | I | J-K | L | M-MET | MET-MZ | N | O | P-PHA | PHE-PON | POR-PZ | Q | R | S-SEPA | SEPO-SMT | SN-STEM | STEP-SZ | T-TOG | TON-TZ | U | V | W | X-Z |

2DEG (Two-Dimensional Electron Gas) (CLASS 977)
State of electrons in quantum well.

a-Si (CLASS 438)
Amorphous silicon

ABNORMAL PEPTIDE LINK (CLASS 930)
Exists between a nonalpha-amino group of an amino acid and the carboxyl group - in position 1 - of an alpha-amino acid, or between an alpha-amino group of one amino acid and the carboxyl group - not in position 1 - of another amino acid.

ABOVE GROUND (CLASS 175)
The term "Above Ground" denotes any point which lies outside of a hole being formed in the earth, this may be either in the open (e.g., on the surface of the earth) or a cellar, tunnel or other hole in the earth from which a hole is being formed.

ABSORB (CLASS 210)
See SORB.

ABSORBING MATERIAL (CLASS 376)
See Neutron Absorbing Material.

ABSORPTION (CLASS 423)
The ability of a substance to retain or concentrate gases, liquids or dissolved substance (absorbate) within its bodies.

ABUTMENT (CLASS 418)
A partition member having relative movement with a cylinder or reaction member of which it is a part and moving incident to the expansion and contraction of the working chamber, the cylinder or reaction member not constituting the working member in this case.

ACCELERATION CONTROL (CLASS 318)
Controlling the change of speed of an electric motor from zero speed to some running speed value and vice versa, or from one running speed value to another running speed value. Mere starting of the motor is not considered to be acceleration control unless the acceleration of the motor is controlled after the starting operation. Acceleration control includes deceleration control. Deceleration control differs from motor braking in that in deceleration control no means are utilized for applying an opposing torque or output force to the driving member of the motor. In deceleration control, for example, the power input to the motor is varied to decelerate the motor. See the definition of braking below. Mere stopping of the motor by opening the supply circuit is not deceleration control in the absence of any means to control the rate of stopping, but is mere stopping. For the distinction between acceleration control and running speed control, see the definition of Running Speed Control.

ACCELERATOR (CLASS 210)
Agent which promotes an action, but does not necessarily cause the action. An example is a catalyst as contrasted with a reactant. In subclasses 696+ and 702+ no distinction is made between an agent which promotes or one which causes and a search for a compound used as a flocculant is the same as if the compound reacted to cause precipitation.

ACCEPTOR IMPURITY (CLASS 257)
An atom or ion different from or foreign to, but present in, a semiconductor material and which has insufficient valence electrons to complete the normal bonding arrangement in the semiconductor crystal structure. An acceptor impurity accepts an electron from an adjacent atom to create a hole. Acceptor impurities are also referred to as p-type impurities. Common acceptor impurities in silicon or germanium are boron, gallium, and indium.

ACCEPTOR IMPURITY (CLASS 438)
An atom or ion different from or foreign to, but present in, a semiconductor material and which has insufficient valence electrons to complete the normal bonding arrangement in the semiconductor crystal structure. An acceptor impurity (also referred to as p-type) accepts an electron from an adjacent atom to create a positive charge carrier (i.e., a hole). A donor impurity (also referred to as n-type) provides an electron to the conduction band of the semiconductor.

ACCEPTOR IMPURITY OR ACCEPTOR (CLASS 330)
A material which when added to a semiconductor material in minute quantities, as an impurity, induces hole conduction, generally causing the semiconductor to be one of "P-type conductivity".

ACCESS (CLASS 099)
The term "access" is intended to include a cutting means which (a) makes an incision (usually at a point adjacent either the stem or tip of the food) for the purpose of allowing the same means and/or another means to separate the core-pit* from the interior of the food; or, (b) impales the food (and, the place of entry of the impaling means frequently is used for the same purpose as the incision in (a), immediately above); or, (c) halves the food (and, once the food is "halved", an easier "access" is obtained to separate the core-pit, seeds, inner membranes, etc.)

ACCESS (CLASS 709)
To obtain entry to, or to locate, read into memory, and make ready for, some operation, for example, regarding disks, files, records, and network entry procedures.

ACCESS (CLASS 718)
To obtain entry to, or to locate, read into memory, and make ready for, some operation, for example, regarding disks, files, records, and network entry procedures.

ACCESS (CLASS 719)
To obtain entry to, or to locate, read into memory, and make ready for, some operation, for example, regarding disks, files, records, and network entry procedures.

ACCESS (CLASS 725)
Any means of establishing logical or physical communication with a computer or communications system. Also, any means of obtaining the use of such a system or any actions that result in a flow of information involving such a system.

ACCESS CONTROL (CLASS 726)
The prevention of unauthorized access to resources of a system or information system, including the prevention of their use in an unauthorized manner.

ACCESSORIES (CLASS 015)
Devices not classifiable elsewhere and which perform no cleaning function but which are merely ancillary to machines, implements and attachments classified in this class.

ACID (CLASS 216)
A chemical compound which yields hydrogen ions when dissolved in water, whose hydrogen can be replaced by metals or basic radicals, or which reacts with bases to form salts and water (neutralization).

ACID DYE (CLASS 008)
A dye containing organic acid groups, e.g., sulfonic, sulfamic, phosphoric, carboxylic, etc., or their salts. Acid dyes are commonly sodium salts of organic acids applied in an acid bath and used to dye wool, polyamide and silk. Acid dyes have the ability to be substantive to substrates with basic groups.

ACOUSTO-OPTIC (CLASS 372)
The effect, on the properties of a beam of light, by sound energy, interacting with the light within a volume of matter.

ACT (CLASS 438)
Acoustic charge transport

ACTINIDE* (CLASS 075)
A metal of the group Actinium (Ac), Thorium (Th), Protactinium (Pa), Uranium (U), Neptunium (Np), Plutonium (Pu), Americium (Am), Curium (Cm), Berkelium (Bk), Californium (Cf), Einsteinium (Es), Fermium (Fm), Mendelevium (Md), Nobelium (No), and Lawrencium (Lr).

ACTINIDES (CLASS 257)
Ac, Th, Pa, U, Np, Pu, Am, Cm, Bk, Cf, E, Fm, Mv, No, Lw.

ACTIVATED (CLASS 502)
The state or condition of a material which has been treated or acted upon to enable it to function as intended. In general a change is effected which is discernible often only in the ability to perform such function. For instance, activated charcoal.

ACTIVATED SLUDGE (CLASS 210)
Common term for an aerobic process of treating sewage with micro-organisms in which part of the settled sludge from the treatment is diverted and introduced into the feed of incoming sewage.

ACTIVE (CLASS 424)
Denotes a physiological, pharmacological, or biological affect. AMINE Denotes a compound in which one or more of the valences of a nitrogen atom have been satisfied by a covalently bonded carbon atom.

ACTIVE (CLASS 504)
The expression active as used herein denotes a plant growth regulating effect.

ACTIVE (CLASS 707)
Active is used in the definition to distinguish between LIVE. An active database is online and can receive updates but is not being used by users, per se, for responding to queries.

ACTIVE ANTENNA (CLASS 342)
Part of the antenna which is directly coupled to free space and radiates electromagnetic energy into, or collects electromagnetic energy from, free space and is also directly coupled to a transmitter or receiver.

ACTIVE CARBON (CLASS 502)
Sorbent form compressing carbon with either additive or porous structure enhancing sorbability.

ACTIVE ELEMENT (CLASS 331)
A control device for exerting a control on a source of energy proportional to an applied control signal. A conventional triode, having cathode, control grid on anode, connected as a conventional amplifier, is an example of an active network, a control potential applied to the grid causing a flow of anode current, supplied by the anode biasing source, proportional to the magnitude of the control potential.

ACTIVE ELEMENT (CLASS 343)
An element or network whose energy output is modified due to the presence of a source of energy in the element or network (other than the mere signal energy which passes through the network) or an element or network in which the energy output from a source of energy is controlled by the signal input.

ACTIVE MATERIAL (CLASS 429)
The element, chemical compound, or composition which chemically reacts to produce a transfer of electrons through an external circuit.

ACTIVE MEDIA (CLASS 372)
The material, in which most of the atoms can be placed in an excited state (i.e., population inversion state), so that an electromagnetic wave of the proper frequency passing through it can stimulate a cascade of photons.

ACTIVE NETWORK (CLASS 330)
A network containing a source of energy, or a sink of energy (i.e., a device for absorbing or dissipating energy other than that accounted for by the resistance of the components of the networks). Merely dissipating the heat generated by a resistance will not cause the resistance to be an active element. See Amplifying Device.

ACTIVE NETWORK (CLASS 333)
A network containing a source of energy, or a sink of energy (i.e., a device for absorbing or dissipating energy other than that accounted for by the resistance of the components of the networks). Merely dissipating the heat generated by a resistance will not cause the resistance to be an active element.

ACTIVE SOLID-STATE DEVICE (CLASS 438)
An electronic device or component that is primarily made up of solid materials, usually semiconductors, which operates by the movement of charge carriers - electrons or holes - which undergo energy level changes within the material and can modify an input voltage to achieve rectification, amplification, or switching action. Active solid-state electronic devices include diodes, transistors, thyristors, etc., but exclude pure resistors, capacitors, inductors, or combinations solely thereof. The latter category is characterized as passive.

ACTIVE solid-state ELECTRONIC DEVICE (CLASS 257)
An electronic device or component that is made up primarily of solid materials, usually semiconductors, which operates by the movement of charge carriers - electrons or holes - which undergo energy level changes within the material and can modify an input voltage to achieve rectification, amplification, or switching action. Active solid-state electronic devices include diodes, transistors, thyristors, etc., but exclude pure resistors, capacitors, inductors, or combinations solely thereof. The latter class of devices is characterized as passive.

ACTIVE VOLUME (CLASS 376)
See Reactor Core.

ACTIVITY (CLASS 435)
Rate of metabolic or anabolic action, speed or efficiency. Mere suppression of competing strains is not viewed as increasing the activity.

ACTUATION (ACTUATE, ACTUATING, ETC.) (CLASS 269)
The application of (a) a bias (resilient or gravity), or (b) a mechanical advantage, or (c) the use of a lost motion mechanism to effect the relative movement of jaws. The use of levers, inclined planes, pulleys, gears, cams, fluid systems, etc., even where such means fail to produce force multiplication, or actually provide a force reduction, is considered enough to constitute actuation means rather than adjustment* means.

ACTUATION (CLASS 234)
The application of operating energy to a mechanism to cause the latter to perform its appointed function.

ACTUATOR (CLASS 049)
(See OPERATOR) The force input means to the closure for imparting movement thereto, e.g., an operator. The term is broader than "operator" since a handle which does not move relative to the closure is considered an actuator.

ACTUATOR (CLASS 172)
A device comprising both a means for imparting movement to an element and a means for holding the moved element against returning to a position from which it has been moved. Thus, an actuator may comprise a servomotor, a mechanical power take-off from a motor or rolling wheel, a hand operated lever and ratchet or merely a handle and a bracket for holding the element moved by the handle in position. In the case of a mere handle actuator, however, the handle must be intended to be used merely to move an element to an adjusted position where it is held in place by a holding means. If the handle is intended to be used by an attendant so as to hold an element in intermediate positions by continued application of force by the attendant then the handle is not considered an actuator. See subclasses 329+ for devices with such handles. If the handle is disclosed as usable as an actuator to merely move and hold and, alternatively, also as a guiding means to move and hold by force exerted by the attendant then the handle is considered to be both an actuator and an attendant hold means and is classified accordingly in the first appropriate subclass and cross referenced down if necessary. A device comprising merely a means for moving by direct application of draft force is not considered an actuator. For example, an implement hitched to a tractor and provided with a latch and a movable hitch whereby the draft force of the tractor on the movable hitch moves an earth working element with respect to the implement frame and the latch holds the element in different positions is not considered to be provided with an actuator, as the term is used in this class. See subclass 605 for such devices. Also, a device comprising merely a screw bolt or the like is not considered an actuator, being merely a clamping or an adjusting means.

ACYCLIC (CLASS 204)
For the purposes of this class, "acyclic" refers to an organic compound which does not contain a heterocyclic, nitrocyclic, or carbocyclic nucleus.

ACYCLIC (CLASS 260)
Denotes a compound which does not contain a ring.

ACYCLIC (CLASS 514)
Denotes a compound devoid of any ring-containing moiety. Thus an acyclic chain may contain any atom as long as it is not a member of a ring.

ACYCLIC (CLASS 520)
Denotes a compound devoid of any ring-containing moiety.

ACYCLIC (CLASS 532)
This term denotes a compound which does not contain a ring.

ACYCLIC ATOM (CLASS 532)
This term denotes an atom which is not a ring member. Figure 1 contains acyclic nitrogen while Figure 2 does not contain acyclic nitrogen Figure 1> Figure 2>

ACYCLIC BONDING (CLASS 532)
As used in regard to bonding or attachment of specified moieties, this term denotes that the moieties are connected to each other exclusively by atoms and bonds which are not part of a ring. The compounds in Figure 3 show oxygen attached to a hetero ring by acyclic bonding. Note that the sulfur-containing compound also has nitrogen and sulfur attached to the hetero ring by acyclic bonding. Figure 3> The compounds in Figure 4 would be excluded from a subclass requiring oxygen attached to a hetero ring by acyclic bonding since a carbocyclic ring is between the oxygen and the hetero ring in each structure. Figure 4>

ADC (CLASS 438)
Analog-to-digital converter

ADDITION AGENT (CLASS 164)
In founding, any material, including principal alloying constituents, densifiers, fluidizers, graphitizers, grain size controllers, etc., added to the molten metal to produce specific effects in the solid metal.

ADDITION POLYMER FROM UNSATURATED MONOMERS (CLASS 428)
Any multiunit chain which is the product of the reaction of unsaturated bonds in the units. The product may be the result of interaction of molecules of the same compound (as polyethylene) or of different compounds (as acryronitrile-styrene). Vinyl acetate and methyl methacrylate are included within the scope of the term because the monomeric units are linked through the reacted unsaturated bonds and the ester groups are pendant - i.e., the units are not linked through the ester groups. (Nonstructural or Composition)

ADDITIVE (CLASS 210)
An agent added to a liquid being treated to either cause a desired result or to promote a result which would occur more slowly or incompletely without the additive. Catalysts filter aids, chemical agents, seeding agents, buffers are all additives.

ADDITIVE (CLASS 426)
Substance or a mixture of substances used primarily for purposes other than its nutritive value and added to a food in relatively small amounts to (1) impart or improve desirable properties (2) or suppress undesirable properties, and (3) may become a part of the food or be transitory in nature. (Compare ingredient below which in some instance may be an additive).

ADDITIVE COLOR A (CLASS 430)
color (red, green, blue) when added to the other two additive colors produce white.

ADDRESS DATA (CLASS 345)
Data that represent or identify a source or destination. (also see: Data)

ADDRESS DATA (CLASS 711)
Data that specify a location in a memory.

ADDRESS DATA (CLASS 714)
Data that represent or identify a source or destination.

ADHESIVE BOND (CLASS 156)
The joining of parts (a) by means of a separate glue-like material or (b) by rendering contacting surfaces tacky by means of solvent and/or heat.

ADJUNCT (CLASS 249)
See the Class Definition, section G, above.

ADJUSTABLE (CLASS 172)
An adjective describing the capability of two parts of being selectively held in different positions with respect to one another by some means other than an attendant. A mere clamp which cooperates with a member such that by loosening the clamp the member could be set in any desired position and reclamped (e.g., clamp and spike tooth) is not considered to be an adjusting means. However, any specific structure such as selectively usable apertures, teeth, slots, etc., for the purpose of permitting the selective change of the relative positions of two parts is included under this definition. Despite the above limitation on the meaning of "adjustable" if a claim emphasizes the feature of adjustability it is classifiable in an "adjustable" subclass even if structurally the feature comprises a mere clamp.

ADJUSTABLE INDUCTOR (CLASS 336)
A passive inductor wherein the inductor device includes a movable element which may be adjusted to different positions or adjusted to vary its physical dimensions to change the effective inductance from one value to another. Examples of such movable elements are: a tap changing switch, a distortable coil or core, coil length varying means, a movable core and movable coupled coils. Inductor devices designed to change inductance (a) as a function of the current flowing through the inductor winding, or (b) in accordance with a magnetic bias applied to the core of the device, or (c) as a function of the ambient temperature of the device, and wherein no physical elements of the inductor are moved to effect such change in inductance, are not considered adjustable under the above definition. Such variable inductors will be found in subclasses 155+ of this class for magnetically saturable or high leakage reactance type devices and subclass 179 of this class for devices responsive to changes in ambient temperature.

ADJUSTMENT (ADJUST, ADJUSTING, ETC.) (CLASS 269)
The shift of a jaw or jaws into juxtaposition with work without the application of (a) a bias (resilient or gravity), or (b) mechanical advantage effective to press or grip work, or (c) utilizing a "lost motion mechanism". This shift may be (d) no more than a "quick setting" of a jaw of a particular device (e.g., the use of a split nut to initially position a jaw for gripping movement along a lead screw) or (e) a change of the range* limits (e.g., the use of a pawl and rack lock to initially position a jaw for gripping movement by a cam or eccentric). While the shift of (d) and (e) are both considered to be jaw adjustment only (e) represents a true variation of range limits; i.e., the full cam throw will move the jaw one inch (the range whether the pawl and rack setting provides a work accommodating span of three or ten inches).

ADJUSTMENT-LOCK (CLASS 269)
The immobilization, or securing against movement, of structural elements constituting the means for jaw adjustment*. An adjustment-lock may be effected (a) by a shift in relative position of the structural elements being immobilized (as, for example, in subclasses 166-171.5) or (b) by positioning an additional element to effect the desired binding or securing. The immobilization, securing, or binding referred to may be only relative rather than absolute, in the sense that further movement or positioning of the structural elements requires the utilization of actuating* means. The adjustment-lock effected may in fact be limited to a one way latch or binding. For example, in some of the pawl and rack locks of subclasses 212-215, the structural elements, when said pawl and rack are engaged, cannot be further adjusted except in a direction favored by the inclination of both rack teeth and pawl; and similarly, in the simple cant type lock of subclass 166, the structural elements, when relatively askew, resist adjustment in a direction tending to further accentuate the degree of cant but are freely adjustable in the direction tending to reduce the degree of cant.

ADSORB (CLASS 210)
See SORB.

ADSORPTION (CLASS 423)
The ability of a substance (usually a solid) to retain or concentrate gases, liquids or dissolved substances (adsorbate) upon its surface.

ADVANCE (CLASS 173)
The forward movement of the tool into or along the work. Such movement is in addition to the drive movement (i.e., cyclic forward and backward or lateral motion of the tool). Included under this definition as apparatus functioning under the broad meaning of advance are means for causing, controlling, or selectively preventing the forward movement of the tool into or along the work.

ADVANCE (CLASS 175)
Motion in a direction towards the desired depth or direction of a hole being formed.

AEROBIC (CLASS 210)
Treating liquids, generally sewage, with micro-organisms in the presence of oxygen generally supplied as air or other source of oxygen but sometimes using residual dissolved oxygen. Best known method is "activated sludge". The micro-organisms convert noxious materials to less noxious stuff, e.g., to water, methane, nitrogen oxides, carbon dioxide.

AES (CLASS 438)
Auger electron spectroscopy

AGING OR AGEING (CLASS 148)
Also termed precipitation hardening or strengthening. A process whereby the hardness/strength of a metal alloy may be increased by subjecting a supersaturated solid solution to elevated temperature to precipitate out a secondary phase containing the solute. Aging may also be manifested as a spontaneous increase in hardness at room temperature. Aging for a longer time than that corresponding to maximum hardness at the particular temperature is termed overageing. Aging after or during straining is known as strain aging. Maraging steels are a specific group of high nickel (i.e., greater than ten percent Nickel), low carbon martensitic steels which can be fabricated while in a comparatively ductile martensitic condition and later strengthened by aging treatment.

AGITATION (CLASS 404)
Brisk shaking, regular or motion, or to-and-fro movement of material or device to effect any one or several of many different purposes during road building, (e.g., vibration imparted to road aggregate for compaction, agitation of uncured road slab to provide a smooth upper surface or agitation of material to mix constituents). Individual subclass definitions must be checked for possible special limitations imposed upon the use of this term - e.g., subclasses 113 and 133.

AGITATOR (CLASS 366)
A stirrer or a deflector.

ALCOHOL (CLASS 514)
Denotes an organic compound having the general structure C-OH wherein the carbon atom bound to the oxygen atom of the hydroxyl group cannot be doubled bonded to oxygen, sulfur, selenium, or tellurium or triple bonded to nitrogen. The terms as used herein includes phenols.

ALCOHOL (CLASS 520)
Denotes an organic compound having the general structure C-OH wherein the carbon atom bound to the oxygen atom of the hydroxyl group cannot be double bonded to oxygen, sulfur, selenium, or tellurium, or triple bonded to nitrogen. The terms as used herein include phenols.

ALDEHYDE (CLASS 514)
Denotes an organic compound having the general structure -C-[C(=O)]n -H or H-[C(=O)]n-H (n is 1 or more and wherein the carbon atom bonded to the-[C(=O)]-n group is not double bonded to oxygen, sulfur, selenium, or tellurium, or triple bonded to nitrogen.

ALDEHYDE (CLASS 520)
Denotes an organic compound having the group -C(=O)H [i.e., -CHO] bonded directly to hydrogen or to an additional carbon,which carbon is not double bonded to chalcogen (i.e., oxygen, sulfur, selenium, or tellurium), or triple bonded to nitrogen.

ALDEHYDE DERIVATIVE (CLASS 520)
Denotes the following: A. Compounds having a X-CH2-OH group where X is other than carbon or hydrogen (e.g., paraformaldehyde, methyol derivatives of urea, etc.); B. Heterocyclic compounds having only carbon and oxygen as alternating ring members (the number of ring carbon atoms must equal the number of ring oxygen atoms). An example is trioxane, which is shown as Figure 1 at the end of the "Aldehyde Derivative" definition; C. Hexamethylene tetramine (i.e., urotropine) or derivatives thereof. Hexamethylene tetramine per se is shown as Figure 2 at the end of the "Aldehyde Derivative" definition. A derivative, for purposes of this definition, requires the basic hexamethylene tetramine ring structure, where substitution has been made for the hydrogens bonded to the ring carbons. Compounds having a -CH2OH bonded to atoms other than C, H, or oxygen are regarded as being two compounds; for instance, a methylol derivative of melamine is regarded as a mixture of melamine and formaldehyde, and methylol urea is regarded as being a mixture of urea and formaldehyde. A structurally unspecified novolak is proper for this area in that it is considered as a mixture of a phenol and an aldehyde. If a novolak of specified structure is claimed as prepared from specific reactants, then classification is proper on the basis of the specific reactants. FIGURE 1. Trioxane> FIGURE 2. Hexamethylene tetramine>

ALDEHYDE OR KETONE CONDENSATION PRODUCT (CLASS 428)
A resin resulting from the reaction of an aldehyde or a ketone and a polyfunctional active hydrogen containing compound, which, with the elimination of water, produces a chain of alkylidene units alternating with the residue of the hydrogen supplying compound. Phenol formaldehyde, urea formaldehyde and polyamino (e.g., melamine) aldehyde or furfural resins are within the scope of the term. (Nonstructural or Composition)

ALDEHYDE-TYPE (CLASS 520)
An aldehyde-type reactant is limited to an aldehyde derivative or methylol derivative.

ALE (CLASS 438)
Atomic layer epitaxy

ALEP (CLASS 438)
Angle-lapping edge profilometry

ALGAECIDE (CLASS 210)
Any material capable of inhibiting or destroying algal growth.

ALICYCLIC (CLASS 260)
Denotes a carbocyclic compound not containing a benzene nucleus. Thus, decahydronaphthalene is alicyclic, but 1,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphthalene is aromatic.

ALICYCLIC RING OR RING SYSTEM (CLASS 514)
This term denotes a carbocyclic ring which is not a benzene ring or a polycyclo carbocyclic ring system which does not have a benzene ring as one of the cyclos.

ALICYCLIC RING OR RING SYSTEM (CLASS 532)
This term denotes a carbocyclic ring which is not a benzene ring or a polycyclo carbocyclic ring system which does not have a benzene ring as one of the cyclos.

ALKALI METAL* (CLASS 075)
A metal of the group Lithium (Li), Sodium (Na), Potassium (K), Rubidium (Rb), Cesium (Cs), and Francium (Fr).

ALKALI METAL* (CLASS 420)
A metal of the groups Lithium, Sodium, Potassium, Rubidium, Cesium and Francium.

ALKALI METALS (CLASS 257)
Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs, Fr.

ALKALI METALS (CLASS 423)
The metal elements of the first group of the periodic system, consisting of Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs.

ALKALI METALS (CLASS 588)
The metal elements in group I of the periodic system consisting of Li, Na, K, Rb, and Cs.

ALKALI-FORMING METAL (CLASS 204)
A metal element chosen from the group consisting of the alkali metals (lithium (Li), sodium (Na), potassium (K), rubidium (Rb), cesium (Cs), and francium (Fr)), the alkaline earth metals (calcium (Ca), strontium (Sr), barium (Ba), and radium (Ra)), and magnesium (Mg) (included due to its similarity in properties to the alkaline earth metals).

ALKALINE EARTH METAL (CLASS 501)
Alkaline Earth Metal is considered to be generic to calcium, strontium, and barium. In this class (501), magnesium is not considered to be an alkaline earth metal and compositions containing magnesium compounds are generally provided for apart from those of alkaline earth metals.

ALKALINE EARTH METAL* (CLASS 075)
A metal of the group Calcium (Ca), Strontium (Sr), Barium (Ba), and Radium (Ra).

ALKALINE EARTH METAL* (CLASS 420)
A metal of the group Calcium, Strontium, Barium and Radium.

ALKALINE EARTH METALS (CLASS 423)
The metal elements in Group II A of the periodic system, consisting of Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba.

ALKALINE EARTH METALS (CLASS 588)
The metal elements in group II of the periodic system consisting of Mg, Ca, Sr, and Ba.

ALKALINE-EARTH METALS (CLASS 257)
Ca, Sr, Ba, Ra.

ALKENYL (CLASS 532)
This term denotes an acyclic carbon chain which contains a carbon-to-carbon double bond and is represented by the formula -CnH2n-1.

ALKENYLENE (CLASS 532)
This term denotes an acyclic carbon chain which contains a carbon-to-carbon double bond and is represented by the formula -(CnH2n-2)-.

ALKYL (CLASS 532)
This term denotes an acyclic carbon or a saturated acyclic carbon chain represented by the formula -CnH2n+1.

ALKYLENE (CLASS 532)
This term denotes an acyclic carbon or a saturated acyclic carbon chain represented by the formula CnH2n-.

ALKYNLENE (CLASS 532)
This term denotes an acyclic carbon chain which contains a carbon-to-carbon triple bond and is represented by the formula -(CnH2n-4).

ALKYNYL (CLASS 532)
This term denotes an acyclic carbon chain which contains a carbon-to-carbon triple bond and is represented by the formula -(CnH2n-3)-.

ALLOY (CLASS 075)
A union, possessing metallic properties of two or more metallic elements or of nonmetallic element (s) and metallic elements(s) which are not pure compounds and which are miscible with each other, which at least to a certain extent when molten forms a more or less homogeneous liquid having a metallic matrix and which does not separate into distinct layers when solid. Such combinations when solidified from a melt may consist of mechanical mixtures, entectics, entectoids, solid solutions, or in part of chemical compounds one or more of which may exist at the same time. Intermetallic compounds are considered alloys for purposes of classification.

(1) Note. The term "alloy" when used in the various definitions of Class 75 is considered to include a "metallic composition" (q.v.) of the type that is found in Class 420.

ALLOY (CLASS 420)
A union, possessing metallic properties of two or more metallic elements, or of nonmetallic element(s) and metallic element(s) which are not pure compounds and which are miscible with each other, at least to a certain extent when molten, to form a more, or less homogeneous liquid having a metallic matrix and which do not separate into distinct layers when solid. Such combinations when solidified from a melt may consist of mechanical mixtures, entectics, entectoids, solid solutions, or in part of chemical compounds one, or more of which may exist at the same time. Intermetallic compounds are considered alloys for purposes of classification.

ALLOY JUNCTION (CLASS 257)
A fused junction produced by combining one or more elemental impurity metals with a semiconductor. Typical alloyed junctions include indium- germanium and aluminum-silicon.

ALLOY JUNCTION (CLASS 438)
A fused junction produced by combining one or more elemental impurity metals with a semiconductor. Typical alloyed junctions include indium-germanium and aluminum-silicon.

ALLOY TRANSISTOR (CLASS 257)
A transistor in which the emitter-base and collector-base junctions are alloy junctions.

ALPHANUMERIC (CLASS 345)
Any symbol found in the ASCII character set.

ALTERNATING CURRENT (CLASS 363)
Alternating current includes pulsating current which is of such a character as to have the characteristics of alternating current (e.g., such as to be applied to the primary of a transformer to produce alternating current in the secondary).

ALTERNATING-CURRENT COMMUTATING MOTOR (CLASS 318)
A motor having a commutator electrically connected to a winding of the motor, the motor being designed to operate on alternating current. Such motors are sometimes referred to as "series A-C motors", "universal motors". See the definition of Repulsion motor above, and the definition of self-commutated impulse or reluctance motors below.

AMALGAMATION (CLASS 075)
The use of a liquid metal to collect, to alloy, or to adhere a desired free metal without melting the desired free metal with heat.

AMD (CLASS 438)
Active matrix display

AMG (CLASS 438)
Alternative-metal, virtual-ground (metallization)

AMINE (CLASS 520)
Denotes an organic compound having a nitrogen atom single or double bonded to a carbon atom and wherein the carbon atom bonded to the nitrogen atom is devoid of a double bond to oxygen, sulfur, selenium, or tellurium or triple bonded to nitrogen. In addition, those compounds wherein the same nitrogen atom is bonded to a -C(=X)- group (X is O, S, Se, or Te) and to a carbon atom which is not double bonded to oxygen, sulfur, selenium, or tellurium, are not considered as being amines, e.g., -C(=X)NH-CH3, etc. Although amides may be considered chemically as amines, it has been found expedient for these classes to exclude compounds containing only amide nitrogen herefrom. Therefore, as used throughout this area, the term amide is not to be confused as being an amine. A compound, however, which contains a nitrogen atom bonded to a non -C(=X)- carbon atom and which contains either a nitrogen atom bonded to a -C(=X)- group of an amide group, is considered as being an amine. An organic amine salt of a carboxylic acid has been classified as if it were a mixture of an amine and a carboxylic acid. An organic diamine salt of a dicarboxylic acid where the amine salt-forming groups are identical is considered as being a single amine compound, whereas, if the amine groups are different then they are regarded as two amine compounds. Where the amine groups contain two or more nitrogen atoms bonded to the same or different noncarbonyl carbon atom then they are to be regarded as polyamines.

AMINE- (CLASS 514)
Denotes an organic compound having a nitrogen atom single or double bonded to a carbon atom and wherein the carbon atom bonded to the nitrogen atom is devoid of a double bond to oxygen, sulfur, selenium, or tellurium or triple bonded to nitrogen. In addition, those compounds wherein the same nitrogen atom is bonded to a -C(=X)- group (X is O, S, Se, or Te) and to a carbon atom which is not double bonded to oxygen, sulfur, selenium, or tellurium, are not considered as being amines, e.g., -C-NH-C(X=)- Although amides may be considered chemically as amines, it has been found expedient for this class to exclude compounds containing only amide nitrogen herefrom. Therefore, as used throughout this area, the term amide is not to be confused as being an amine. A compound, however, which contains a nitrogen atom bonded to a non -C(=X)- carbon atom and which contains either a nitrogen atom bonded to a -C(=X)- group or an amide group, is considered as being an amine.

AMINO ACIDS (CLASS 930)
Compounds in which at least one amino group and at least one carboxyl group are bound to the same carbon skeleton and the nitrogen atom of the amino group may form part of a ring.

AMINO NITROGEN (CLASS 514)
Denotes any nitrogen in an organic compound other than a nitrogen in an inorganic ion of an addition salt, a nitro (-NO2) or nitroso (-NO). Component parts of an "adduct" will be considered to be attached to each other ionically except if it is clear that the mode of attachment is nonionic.

AMINO NITROGEN (CLASS 532)
Denotes any nitrogen in an organic compound other than a nitrogen in an inorganic ion of an addition salt, a nitro (-NO2) or nitroso (-NO). Component parts of an "adduct" will be considered to be attached to each other ionically except if it is clear that the mode of attachment is nonionic.

AMORPHOUS (CLASS 117)
Noncrystalline; having no molecular lattice structure; e.g., glass, liquid.

AMORPHOUS (CLASS 148)
A term signifying a lack of regular crystalline order, much like the absence of long-range crystalline order in glass.

AMPLIFICATION, NEUTRON (CLASS 376)
See Subcritical Reactor.

AMPLIFIER (CLASS 330)
Electric circuit means wherein a variable electrical current or voltage input signal is applied to an electrical amplifying device to control a source of electrical energy applied to the same device and from which is derived an output signal of substantially the same wave form as the input signal and substantially linearly related thereto.

AMPLIFIER (CLASS 725)
A unidirectional device that is capable of delivering an enlargement of the waveform of the electric current, voltage, or power supplied to it.

AMPLIFIER CHANNEL OR CHANNEL (CLASS 330)
A part of an amplifier system in which a single signal path may be traced from a source to a load, and which path includes an amplifier as defined above. Such channel may be a cascade amplifier.

AMPLIFYING DEVICE (CLASS 330)
An electrical transducer of the active type wherein the electrical energy supplied by one system (power supply) is controlled by the electrical energy supplied by another system (signal source) limited to the active transducer device element itself such as a vacuum tube, transistor, controllable gas tube, saturable reactor, variable resistive element, etc.. See Active Elements.

AMPLITUDE LIMITER (CLASS 330)
A means in a circuit to limit the amplitude of the electrical voltage across it or the current in it to a value below or above a fixed predetermined value, particularly the former.

AMPLITUDE RANGE (CLASS 333)
The ratio of the highest amplitude to the lowest amplitude of an undulating wave.

AMPLITUDE RANGE COMPRESSOR (CLASS 333)
A nonlinear device having an input and an output, the amplitude range of the output wave being less than the amplitude range of the input wave.

AMPLITUDE RANGE EXPANDER (CLASS 333)
A nonlinear device having an input and an output, the amplitude range of the output wave being larger than the amplitude range of the input wave.

AMPLITUDE STABILIZATION (CLASS 331)
The correction for, prevention of, or compensation for an undesired change in amplitude of the generated waves of the oscillator from a desired value.

ANAEROBIC (CLASS 210)
Treating liquids, generally sewage by micro-organisms which change noxious stuff to innocuous materials, in the absence of oxygen. Some solids are made into water and gases as methane, carbon monoxide, etc. A septic tank is an example of anaerobic digestion of sewage.

ANALOG (CLASS 388)
Of or pertaining to the general class of devices or circuits in which the output varies as a continuous function of the input (cf., "digital" below).

ANALOG CONTROL (CLASS 388)
A control circuit utilizing analog, as opposed to digital, signals.

AND (CLASS 425)
When used in a subclass title indicates plural basic subject matter of this class. And/or has not been used; see "OR".

ANGLE OF ATTACK (CLASS 416)
The acute angle between the chord* of a working member* and the velocity vector of the working fluid* flow relative to the member. See Figure I.

ANGSTROM (CLASS 210)
A unit of length used to measure wavelength of lights and diameters of atoms or molecules. Designated by A and equal to 10-8cm.

ANIMAL CHARCOAL (CLASS 502)
See Bone Black

ANIMAL MEMBRANE (CLASS 428)
Material derived from an animal and found there originally in film or layer form, e.g., bladder,skin or scale. Glue or gelatin in a film form is not included here because neither exists in the animal as a layer or foil. (Nonstructural or Composition)

ANIONIC SUBSTITUENT (CLASS 510)
Denotes that portion of an organic compound which is negatively charged in an aqueous solution at a neutral pH (i.e., pH=7) and is attached to the portion of the molecule of higher molecular weight by covalent bonding. Examples of common anionic substituents include carboxyl, sulfate, or phosphate monoester or sulfonate groups, as well as their salts, including betaines.

ANISEIKONIA (CLASS 351)
The inequality in shape and size between the two ocular images seen in binocular vision.

ANNEAL (CLASS 065)
See Subclass References to the Current Class, above, for a subclass reference to the term "anneal."

ANNEALING (CLASS 148)
A single thermal heat treatment wherein the heating of a metal workpiece to a temperature results in improved formability.

ANODE (CLASS 330)
An electrode which acts as the positive terminal of an electric discharge or which acts as the positive terminal of an electric field to cause a discharge or accelerate the electrons in an electric discharge.

ANODES (CLASS 313)
An electrode which acts as the positive terminal of the discharge or which acts as the positive terminal of an electric field to cause a discharge or accelerate the electrons in a discharge. See the definition of cathode above, and the definition of control electrode below.

ANTENNA (CLASS 725)
That part of a transmitting or receiving system that is designed to radiate or to receive electromagnetic waves, such as radio waves.

ANTENNA ARRAY (CLASS 343)
A plurality of active antennas coupled to a common source or load to produce a directive radiation pattern. Usually the spatial relationship also contributes to the directivity of the antenna.

ANTENNA COMPONENT (CLASS 343)
A portion of the antenna performing a distinct function and limited for use in an antenna, as for example, a reflector, director or active antenna.

ANTENNA COUNTERPOISE (CLASS 343)
Structure of conductive material most closely associated with ground but insulated from or capacitively coupled to the natural ground, and aiding in the function of the natural ground, particularly where variations or limitations of the characteristics of the natural ground interfere with its proper function, and such structure being connected to the terminal of the signal receiver or source opposing the active antenna terminal.

ANTENNA COUPLING NETWORK (CLASS 343)
A passive network (which may be resistive, inductive or capacitive or any combination thereof) for transmitting the signal energy between the active antenna and a source or receiver of such signal energy.

ANTENNA GROUNDING STRUCTURE (CLASS 343)
Ground, or structure most closely associated with or simulating ground which is connected to the terminal of the signal receiver or source opposing the active antenna terminal, (i.e., the signal receiver or source is interposed between the active antenna and this structure), for establishing a reference potential level for operating the active antenna.

ANTENNA INHERENT REACTANCE (CLASS 343)
This includes not only the distributed reactance of the active antenna but also the natural reactance due to its location and surroundings, as for example, the capacity relation inherent in the position of the active antenna relative to ground.

ANTENNA LEAD-IN (CLASS 343)
A conductive means (transmission line, feed line) for conveying the signal energy between the active antenna and the signal source or receiver, and extending directly from the active antenna towards the source or receiver.

ANTENNA SHIELD (CLASS 343)
A conductive or low reluctance structure, such as a wire, plate or grid which is adapted to be placed in the vicinity of an active antenna to reduce, as by dissipation through a resistance or by conduction to ground, undesired electromagnetic radiation, or electric or magnetic fields, which are directed toward the active antenna from an external source or which emanate from the active antenna.

ANTENNA TUNING (CLASS 343)
Adjusting an inductance or capacity combined with the active antenna but distinct and separate therefrom, the inductance or capacity providing a reactance which combines with the inherent reactance of the active antenna to establish a resonance in a circuit including the active antenna, this resonance being at a frequency other than the natural electrical resonant frequency of the active antenna, adjustment of the inductance or capacity changing this resonance; or adjusting the length of an electrically long linear antenna to alter the electrical resonance of the antenna.

ANTI-CATHODE (CLASS 313)
Same as "target" or anode. Used in reference to X-ray tube anodes.

ANTIBODY (CLASS 436)
A protein of the globulin in type that is formed in an animal organism in response to the administration of an antigen and that is capable of combining specifically with that antigen. Abbr Ab. See also immunoglobulin.

ANTIFERROMAGNETISM (CLASS 428)
Antiferromagnetism occurs when the exchange interaction between neighboring atoms cancel each other, so the net magnetic moment is zero. Examples of antiferromagnetic materials are (Pt, Ir, Cr , and Pd) Mn alloys, and select transition metal oxides.

ANTIGEN - ANTIBODY COMPLEX (CLASS 436)
The generally insoluble molecular aggregate that is formed by the specific interaction of antigens and antibodies. It is also referred to as the immune complex.

ANTIGEN (CLASS 436)
A substance, frequently a protein that can stimulate an animal organism to produce antibodies and that can combine specifically with the antibodies thus produced; called also complete antigen as distinct from a hapten. Abbr Ag.

ANTILOCK OR ANTISKID (CLASS 701)
A process of controlling a vehicle to enhance the braking performance during deceleration of the vehicle by manipulating the brake pressure.

ANTISPIN (CLASS 701)
A process of controlling a vehicle to enhance the driveability of the vehicle during starting or acceleration of the vehicle by manipulating at least one of (1) brake pressure, (2) engine torque, and (3) transmission torque.

ANVIL (CLASS 072)
An undriven tool which, as disclosed, is designed and intended to react against work with sufficient force to enable an operation of the class type to be effected in some portion of the work.

(1) Note. An undriven flat-faced tool is regarded as an "Anvil", even though work of a specific shape may be deformed into flatness against it.

ANVIL (CLASS 083)
A tool comprising a smooth-faced, imperforate member, the smooth face having the purpose of contacting the work and providing a reaction surface against which a relatively movable tool may abut in its work penetrating movement.

ANVIL (CLASS 227)
A nonactuated (fixed or adjustably positionable) tool having a face portion designed and intended to react against a driven member to restrict the movement of the material of said member in at least one direction during the driving of said member.

APCVD (CLASS 438)
Atmospheric-pressure CVD

APD (CLASS 438)
Avalanche photodiode

APERTURE (CLASS 396)
An aperture is an opening in the camera through which light passes in order to expose a photographic medium.

APERTURE PLATE (CLASS 352)
A portion of the gate which confines the recorded image to a single frame in a motion picture camera gate or confines the projected light beam to a single frame in a motion picture projector.

APERTURE VALUE (Av) (CLASS 396)
Aperture value is a logarithmic number indicative of aperture size.

APPLICAITON PROGRAM (CLASS 719)
A computer program designed to perform a certain type of work, such as an application to manipulate text, numbers, graphics, or a combination of these elements. An application differs from an operating system (which runs a computer), a utility (which performs maintenance or general-purpose chores), and a language (with which computer programs are created).

APPLICATION PROGRAM (CLASS 709)
A computer program designed to perform a certain type of work, such as an application to manipulate text, numbers, graphics, or a combination of these elements. An application differs from an operating system (which runs a computer), a utility (which performs maintenance or general-purpose chores), and a language (with which computer programs are created).

APPLICATION PROGRAM (CLASS 713)
A computer program designed to perform a certain type of work, such as an application to manipulate text, numbers, graphics or a combination of these elements. An application differs from an operating system (which runs a computer), a utility (which performs maintenance or general-purpose chores), and a language (with which computer programs are created).

APPLICATION PROGRAM (CLASS 718)
A computer program designed to perform a certain type of work, such as an application to manipulate text, numbers, graphics, or a combination of these elements. An application differs from an operating system (which runs a computer), a utility (which performs maintenance or general-purpose chores), and a language (with which computer programs are created).

APPLICATOR (CLASS 228)
A device by or through which heat, pressure, vibratory energy, flux* and/or filler* may be applied directly to the work*.

APPLICATOR (CLASS 401)
A coating tool or such a tool combined with a manually manipulable holder.

APRON (CLASS 037)
This device is the pivotally mounted front covering for a scoop adapted to pivot to an open position when loading and unloading and to a closed position when holding and transporting material.

APRON (CLASS 400)
A member closely adjacent to the cylindrical platen* of a typewriter that serves to guide a record-medium* into close contact with the platen. It is usually a thin sheet of relatively rigid material having a length dimension approximating the length of the platen and is arcuately shaped to approximately the radius of the platen whereby it conforms to part of the periphery of the platen. It is usually located underneath the platen and closely adjacent thereto so that the record-medium is guided between the apron and the platen to be partially wrapped around the platen. The apron may also serve as a mounting for feed-rollers* that cooperate with the platen to move the record-medium in a line-space* direction.

AQUEOUS (CLASS 210)
A liquid containing water. Generally water is the major part as in blood, brine, milk, etc., but may comprise a substantial but not major portion as in a water-alcohol mixture of various proportions. Usually trace amounts of water are not considered aqueous.

ARBITRARILY VARYING (CLASS 329)
Indicates having a future value which is not predictable from past values. (Arbitrary is the opposite of repetitious).

ARBITRARILY VARYING (CLASS 332)
Indicates having a future value which is not predictable from past values. (Arbitrary is the opposite of repetitious).

ARC (CLASS 373)
A prolonged electrical discharge, or series of prolonged discharges between two electrodes, or between an electrode and a current carrying material.

ARC (CLASS 438)
antireflective coating

ARCHITRAVE (CLASS 052)
The finish around and extending away from a door or window opening.

ARM (CLASS 901)
The appendage emanating from the base* of the robot and running to, but not including the end effector*.

ARMATURE (CLASS 388)
The moving element in an electromechanical device such as the rotating part of a generator or motor, the movable part of a relay, or the spring mounted portion of a bell or buzzer.

AROMATIC (CLASS 260)
Denotes a compound which contains a benzene nucleus whether or not it is condensed with other rings.

AROMATIC (CLASS 424)
Denotes a compound which contains a benzene nucleus whether or not it is condensed with other rings.

ARRANGEMENT (CLASS 705)
Either a device or a method of use of a device for performing the indicated process.

ARRAY (CLASS 234)
A plurality of tools or sensing elements arranged to be driven as a group by a common actuator.

ARRAY (CLASS 506)
Set of compounds maintained in a specified spatial distribution (e.g., in the wells of a 96-well plate, in pins held in a rack, or at the tip of optical fibers arranged in a bunch, etc.).

ARRAY (CLASS 977)
Arrangement of multiple units, usually ordered; array may be organized in linear, flat, or 3-dimensional positioning of the multiple units.

ARTICLE (CLASS 428)
A discrete determinate three dimensional thing substantially in its ultimate use form, as distinguished from stock material (e.g., sheet, etc.) from which such articles may be manufactured. These articles are limited to subclasses 2 through 34.1, part of subclass 542 and subclass 576. (Structural)

ARTIFICIAL ATOM (CLASS 977)
Quantum dot that confines a certain number or electrons producing an electron waveform structure quantum, which is mechanically analogous to an atom; alternatively used to describe hollow spherical fullerene, such as buckyballs filled with a dopant, etc.

ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE (AI) (CLASS 701)
Computer emulation of aspects of human intelligence such as speech recognition, deduction, inference, creative response, the ability to learn from past experience, and the ability to make reasonable inferences from incomplete information. Examples of AI include expert systems, neural networks, and fuzzy logic.

ARTIFICIAL LINES (CLASS 333)
Networks for simulating impedance characteristics of a smooth or loaded electrically long transmission line over a frequency range.

ARYL (CLASS 520)
Denotes a benzene ring or a carboxylic ring system having a benzene ring as part of the system.

ARYL (CLASS 987)
Denotes an independent benzene ring or a benzene ring which is part of a fused or bridged ring system.

ARYL RING OR RING SYSTEM (CLASS 514)
This term denotes a benzene ring or a polycyclo carbocyclic ring system having a benzene ring as one of the cyclos.

ARYL RING OR RING SYSTEM (CLASS 532)
This term denotes a benzene ring or a polycyclo carbocyclic ring system having a benzene ring as one of the cyclos.

ASBESTOS (CLASS 428)
A native magnesium calcium silicate. Asbestos is not considered to be included in the term "metal compound" for purposes of this class, but is included in silicon containing, unless specifically stated otherwise in a title or definition. (Nonstructural or Composition)

ASG (CLASS 438)
Arsenosilicate glass

ASPHALT (CLASS 208)
A brown to black solid bituminous substance either occurring naturally or obtained as a residue from certain petroleums, coal tars, lignite tar, etc.

ASSEMBLED SHOE (CLASS 012)
includes within its scope the upper and sole when they are secured together. In shoe making, the upper including various parts thereof, such as the vamp, toe tip, quarters, linings, etc., are assembled and secured. The thus assembled upper is generally conformed to shoe shape by a lasting operation and attached to a sole. When the upper and sole are attached the product is known as a shoe in the trade. It will be noted that this term includes within its scope, (1) partially completed shoes, (2) shoes having outsoles and heels which are ready for wear, and (3) shoes being worn by their wearers.

ASSEMBLING (CLASS 029)
The physical act of or means for juxtaposing, associating, integrating, joining and/or putting together, with or without securing, of machines, devices, and things (articles).

ASSEMBLY (CLASS 072)
The act or operation of bringing into juxtaposition or contact a plurality of preforms (self-shape-sustaining objects) and/or joining said preforms, i.e., so treating one or more of them as to restrict their relative mobility.

(1) Note. The mere ordering, stacking, or piling of workpieces prior to a metal-deforming operation thereupon, or the similar handling of products, is not regarded as "Assembly" for the purposes of this class.

ASTIGMATISM (CLASS 351)
Defect of vision caused by unequal curvature of the refracting surfaces of the eye.

ATOMIC FORCE MICROSCOPE (AFM) (CLASS 977)
Instrument with a nanosized tip that manipulates or detects based upon a separation dependency force between the tip and the object being manipulated or detected.

ATTACHED DIRECTLY OR BONDED DIRECTLY (CLASS 514)
These terms are used to show that specified moieties are connected by bonds only.

ATTACHED DIRECTLY OR BONDED DIRECTLY (CLASS 532)
These terms are used to show that specified moieties are connected by bonds only.

ATTACHED INDIRECTLY (CLASS 514)
This term denotes that at least one atom, as well as bond, connects specified moieties.

ATTACHED INDIRECTLY (CLASS 532)
This term denotes that at least one atom, as well as bonds, connects specified moieties.

ATTACHMENTS (CLASS 015)
As an exception to the other GLOSSARY definitions, patents which recite that (1) a cleaning or coating means is attached to an object which is cleaned or coated thereby or (2) that any device is attached to a cleaning or coating agency, have been classified as attachments regardless of whether they are machines or not, disregarding the relative superiority of these subclasses in the classification schedule.

ATTENUATOR (CLASS 330)
Devices and networks consisting of one or more elements which exhibit only a positive resistance effect and which reduce the intensity of the energy passing through the device by dissipation, (1) the elements being proportioned to permit a change in their value to control the energy loss while maintaining substantially constant input and/or output impedance of the device, and/or (2) the elements being proportioned to permit the device to be inserted in the circuit to provide an energy loss without introducing any reflections in the circuit, and/or (3) the elements being combined with a long line or long line element, and/or (4) the device or network having an impedance equal to the impedance of a specified long line, and/or (5) the device or network is claimed as being particularly modified for use over a frequency band so that its characteristics are particularly related to frequency.

ATTENUATOR (CLASS 333)
Devices and networks consisting of one or more elements which exhibit only a positive resistance effect and which reduce the intensity of the energy passing through the device by dissipation, (a) the elements being proportioned to permit a change in their value to control the energy loss while maintaining substantially constant input and/or output impedance of the device, and/or (b) the elements being proportioned to permit the device to be inserted in the circuit to provide an energy loss without introducing any reflections in the circuit, and/or (c) the elements being combined with a long line or long line element, and/or (d) the device or network having an impedance equal to the impedance of a specified long line, and/or (e) the device or network is claimed as being particularly modified for use over a frequency band so that its characteristics are particularly related to frequency.

ATTITUDE (CLASS 701)
Orientation of a vehicle with respect to a reference plane. An example in an automobile would be orientation of the vehicle body relative to the road surface whereas in aeronautics it may define the orientation of the aircraft relative to the earth.

AUDIO (CLASS 725)
Pertaining to frequencies corresponding to a normally audible sound wave. Note: These frequencies range roughly from 15 Hz to 20,000 Hz.

AUSTEMPERING (CLASS 148)
A procedure that involves preliminary quenching of austenized metal to a temperature in the lower bainite range, usually in a molten salt bath, holding at this temperature until transformation is complete, and quenching or air cooling to room temperature. If desired, a lower hardness level may be produced by including an additional tempering step.

AUSTENIZING (CLASS 148)
A process of heating to an elevated temperature within the austenitic range.

AUTODOPING (CLASS 438)
The introduction via the vapor phase of impurities from an existing substrate region (and adjacent supports, e.g., susceptors, etc.) into another substrate region, typically during growth of the same.

AUTOMATIC CONTROL (CLASS 323)
Includes means for sensing the existence of, the magnitude or level of, or a deviation of a predetermined condition (e.g., the existence, magnitude of change of temperature, voltage, etc.) combined with means for initiating the operation of a control means to perform a control function on the system upon the occurrence of the predetermined condition.

AUTOMATIC CONTROL (CLASS 363)
Includes means for sensing the existence of, the magnitude of, or a deviation of a predetermined condition, e.g., the existence, magnitude or change of temperature voltage, etc., combined with means for initiating the operation of a controlled means to perform a controlling operation.

AUTOMATIC FREQUENCY STABILIZATION (CLASS 331)
The restoration of the generated frequency of the oscillator to a desired value by sensing the deviation in frequency, in direction and amount, from the desired value and instituting a corrective action proportional to sensed deviation to adjust the frequency determining element of the oscillator in such direction and amount so as to return the oscillator frequency to the desired value.

AUTOMATIC STARTING AND STOPPING (CLASS 318)
Starting, stopping, or the combination of these two operations is treated in this class as a single motor operation. Automatic starting and stopping (i.e., starting or stopping which is initiated in response to a condition) is classified for the most part in subclass 445 or in the subclasses specified in the notes to the definition of those subclasses. If the stopping control involves motor braking, then the patent is classified in the braking control subclasses. If the stopping control involves motor deceleration control, but not motor braking, then the patent is classified in the motor acceleration control subclasses. If the starting control involves motor acceleration control, then the patent is classified in the motor acceleration subclasses. See diverse motor operations for the classification where the system has means for automatic starting or stopping of the motor and also means for performing another control operation. Where the motor is stopped and then started in the reverse direction of motion, the patent is classified in the motor reversing control subclasses. See below, for a definition of Reversing Control. Where the motor armature or primary current is controlled during the starting and/or stopping period other than for acceleration, deceleration, or braking control, see definition of Motor Load Control.

AUTOTHERMIC DISTILLATION (CLASS 201)
A thermolytic distillation operation in which the distilland, either by combustion of a portion of itself or by other chemical change, furnishes at least part of the heat for thermolysis and volatilization of either the inherent or the thermolized volatile matter.

AUXILIARY DISCHARGE ELECTRODE (CLASS 315)
An electrode which is connected in the circuit so that the discharge is initiated between it and one of the principal electrodes, the auxiliary discharge conditioning the discharge space between the principal electrodes so that a discharge between the principal electrodes can be established.

AUXILIARY GRID (CLASS 330)
Any grid, of an electronic tube other than the signal input grid.

AUXILIARY STARTING ELECTRODE (CLASS 313)
An electrode designed for use in a discharge device having at least two principal discharge electrodes and the auxiliary starting electrode. The starting electrode is designed to be connected in the circuit so that the discharge is initiated between it and one of the principal electrodes, the auxiliary discharge conditioning the discharge space so that a discharge between the principal electrodes can be established. An auxiliary starting electrode does not necessarily differ in structure or material from any other electrode. Auxiliary starting electrodes are usually simple electrodes, a wire or rod, and are usually not formed from as heavy or strong material as the principal electrodes. Usually an auxiliary starting electrode is placed close to a principal electrode so that the discharge may be initiated between the auxiliary starting electrode and the main electrode at a smaller voltage than is necessary to initiate the discharge between the principal electrodes. The auxiliary starting electrode may be supplied with current only during the starting period or it may be supplied with current during the operation of the device so that a continuous discharge takes place between it an done of the principal electrodes to assure ionization in the discharge space so that the discharge between the principal electrodes may take place at the proper time. The latter type of auxiliary starting electrodes are also known as "holding electrodes". Where a plurality of auxiliary starting electrodes are used, they may be spaced at intervals between the principal electrodes so that the discharge may first be established between one principal electrode and the nearer auxiliary starting electrode, then to a more remote auxiliary starting electrode and so on until the discharge is established between the principal electrodes. If a plurality of auxiliary starting electrodes are used, one may be placed close to each of a plurality of principal electrodes. In as much as the determination of whether or not an electrode is an auxiliary starting electrode depends upon the circuit connections to the discharge device, and this class includes only the structure of the discharge device, per se, only in subclasses 170+ (liquid electrode discharge devices) and subclasses 596+ and 601+ (gas or vapor-type discharge devices) is the classification based upon one of the electrodes being an auxiliary starting electrode.

AUXILIARY-OPERATION (CLASS 234)
Any of the functions to be found in a selective cutting machine other than the selection* of tools, (e.g., tool actuation*, feed* of pattern or workpiece, change of code*, shift of control to or from a keyboard or pattern-senser*, starting or stopping of any portion of the machine, etc.).

AUXILIARY-RECORD-PROGRAM (CLASS 400)
A set of instructions used in a programmed-control-system* of a typewriter, which set of instructions may be readily removed from the typewriter so that another set of instructions may be inserted into the typewriter to perform a different or a modified sequence of typing functions.

AVALANCHE BREAKDOWN (CLASS 257)
A sudden change from high dynamic electrical resistance to very low dynamic resistance in a reverse biased semiconductor device, e.g., a reverse biased junction between p-type and n-type semiconductor materials, wherein current carriers are created by electrons or holes which have gained sufficient speed to dislodge valence electrons. Avalanche breakdown can cause structural damage to a semiconductor device.

AVALANCHE BREAKDOWN (CLASS 438)
A sudden change from high dynamic electrical resistance to very low dynamic resistance in a reverse biased semiconductor device (e.g., a reverse biased junction between p-type and n-type semiconductor materials) wherein current carriers are created by electrons or holes which have gained sufficient speed to dislodge valence electrons. Avalanche breakdown can cause structural damage to a semiconductor device.

AXIAL LEAD (CLASS 257)
A wire lead coming from the end of and along the axis of a resistor, capacitor, or other component.

AXIS-OF-BEND (CLASS 072)
That imaginary line used as a center about which the bending of moving work occurs. For convenience in illustrating the application of the term to the deformation of planiform work, three such axes may be considered, all being related to the direction of work movement and to the disposition of a planar nonthickness surface (see Figure III-1). The three axes are defined as follows: > (A) X-Axis is a line both parallel to the direction of movement of the work and parallel to a nonthickness surface thereof. (B) Y-Axis is a line both perpendicular to the direction of movement of the work (i.e., length) and perpendicular to a nonthickness surface thereof. (C) Z-Axis is a line both perpendicular to the direction of movement of the work and parallel to a nonthickness surface thereof. In the case of strand or rodlike work (i.e., wherein a cross section taken transverse to its length shows substantially equal width and thickness), corresponding or analogous axes are used for convenience. Figure III-2 shows the product partially bent around a Z-Axis to form a transverse bend or the first convolution of a spiral coil. > Figure 111-3 shows the product bent around a Z-Axis and additionally deflected along the Z-Axis-of-Bend, to form a helical-coil from rod. > Figure III-4 shows the operation termed "levelling" wherein each successive work portion is deflected in alternation about a plurality or parallel Z-Axes, whereby each portion travels through an undulating path. > Figure III-5 shows the side margins of the work bent around the X-Axis to form a trough. Further bending of the side margins obviously form a tube. >

AZEOTROPIC DISTILLATION (CLASS 203)
A separatory distillation of a liquid in which a substance is added to the distilland mixture in order to assist separation of its components by forming with one or more of the components a mixture having a minimum boiling point. (The art has also used the term for a distillation process in which two substances in the starting material are removed by their forming a minimum boiling mixture).

| A | B | C-CL | CM-CZ | D-DIM | DIM-DZ | E | F | G | H | I | J-K | L | M-MET | MET-MZ | N | O | P-PHA | PHE-PON | POR-PZ | Q | R | S-SEPA | SEPO-SMT | SN-STEM | STEP-SZ | T-TOG | TON-TZ | U | V | W | X-Z |

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